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Journal ArticleDOI

Domestic legislatures and international human rights law: Legislating on religious symbols in Europe

04 May 2016-Journal of Human Rights (Routledge)-Vol. 15, Iss: 4, pp 550-570
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the dynamics of domestic legislatures' application of international human rights law and examine case studies on religion in schools in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France.
Abstract: This article examines the dynamics of domestic legislatures' application of international human rights law. Specifically, this article asks the following: What factors shape how domestic legislatures apply international human rights law while they enact national law and policy? Lawmakers have a variety of motives for invoking and deliberating international law. Given these motives, the article identifies two factors — civil society actors and legal experts and the flexibility of international law — that are likely to contribute to if and how national legislatures interpret and apply international human rights law while legislating. These factors are examined through case studies on religion in schools in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. This article argues civil society actors and legal experts and the flexibility of international law inform lawmakers' estimation of political costs related to compliance and thus how they apply international human rights law to domestic legislation.

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2017
TL;DR: In this article, Mahkeme soz konusu kararlarini ve ozellikle nelerin dini simge kapsaminda degerlendirilebilecegini laik bir bakis acisiyla tanimlamaktadir.
Abstract: Avrupa Okullarinda Dini Simgelerin Yasalligi . Oz: 1959 yilinda Avrupa Konseyine bagli olarak kurulan Avrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesi, Avrupa Insan Haklari Sozlesmesi ve diger protokollerle belirlenmis temel haklar kapsaminda birey, tuzel kisilik ve devletlerarasindaki sorunlari cozumleyen yargi merciidir. Tarihsel olarak Avrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesi: dusunce, vicdan ve din ozgurlugu kapsaminda degerlendirilen cesitli kararlar almistir. Mahkeme soz konusu kararlarinda ve ozellikle nelerin dini simge kapsaminda degerlendirilebilecegini laik bir bakis acisiyla tanimlamaktadir. Mahkeme, bir taraftan dini inanca sahip olma hakkini tasdik etmekte, bir taraftan da bu hakki kamusal alanda inanci beyan etme hakki olarak nitelemektedir. Calisma dini simgelere, din ve inanc ozgurlugu temelinde yaklasan kavramsal tarama modeliyle desenlenmistir. Bu calisma ozunde alanyazin taramasi gibi gorulse de alanyazin tarama yonteminden farkli olarak kavramsal tarama, bir kavramin farkli yonlerini degisik bilim ve disiplinlerin calisma alanlari kapsaminda incelemektir. Bu calismanin amaci, Avrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesinin, okullarda bulunan dini simgelere karsi tutumunu belirlemektir. Bu calismanin bir sonucu olarak, son yillarda Avrupa okullarinda giderek artan dini simgecilige karsi yurutulen yerel ve yasakci yasal girisimlerin dogasi ve kapsami belirlenmistir. Bununla birlikte, Avrupa egitim sistemlerinde dinin yeri ve sosyal sistem icinde “kilise – devlet iliskisi” bu calismanin baska bir sonucudur. Ayrica calisma, mahkemelerin kararlarini, dini inanc ve geleneklerin kamusal alanda ozgurce beyan edilmesi yonunde sekillendirmeleri gerekliligini de belirlemektedir. Ozet: Avrupa’nin yeniden insa cagindan beri dini sembollerin varligi, cogu durumda Islami semboller, modern Avrupa'da, ozellikle kamusal mekânlarda ve ozellikle de kamu okullarinda giderek daha cok sorun haline gelmistir. Bu durum, dini ozgurluk kavraminin sinirlari hakkinda buyuk capli bir tartisma ve toplumsal ayrimlara yol acmistir. Ayni zamanda, ulkelerin anayasa mahkemelerinin belirli kulturlere ozgu sembollerin toplum tarafindan ozgurce temsil edilebilecegini ilan etmesi, yeni tartismalara neden olmustur. Bu calisma esas olarak dini sembolizm ve din ve inanc ozgurlugu temelinde Avrupa hukuk sistemlerinin ve ozellikle Avrupa Insan Haklari Mahkemesinin (AIHM) gorusune odaklanmistir. Bu calismada, Almanya, Italya ve Romanya'daki haclar ve diger dini sembollerin okullarda kullanimi konusundaki tartismalar yer almaktadir. Dahasi, calismada yerel mahkemelerin ve AIHM'nin dini sembollere karsi kararsiz tutumu uzerinde durulmustur. Avrupa'da tarihsel olarak sekillenen bir devlet, kamusal ve dini kurumlar vardir. Avrupa Devletleri, Yunan ve Roma Medeniyetleri uzerinde gelisen yasama, yurutme ve yargi kurumlarina sahiptir. Ayrica, ortak din ve kultur kavramiyla birbirlerine bagli olan uluslar genel olarak Avrupa kamuoyunu olusturmaktadir. Avrupa'da, dini kurumlar geleneksel olarak Roma doneminde sekillenen bir inanc sistemini benimsemislerdir. Avrupa'da mezhepsel farkliliklar olmasina ragmen, Hiristiyanlik genellikle kabul edilmistir. Ortacag'dan bu yana tum sosyal alanlarda cok onemli roller oynayan Katolik kilisesi (Vatikan), aydinlatma cagindan bu yana gucunu kaybetmistir. Aydinlanma ile birlikte, Avrupa devletleri din ve devlet iliskilerini birbirinden ayiran ve dinin devlet organlari uzerindeki etkisini azaltan geleneksel laiklik gorusunu benimsemeye baslamislardir. Boylece, devletler uzerindeki egemen dini guc zayiflamis ve kilise toplumda ve kamusal alanda yasamini surdurmustur. 1959'da Avrupa Konseyi organi olarak kurulan AIHM, cesitli sozlesmelerin temel haklarinin kullanilmasinda bireyler ve tuzel kisiler ile kendi aralarinda ve devletlerle olan uyusmazliklarin cozulmesi goreviyle yukumludur. Mahkemenin yuksek dogasi geregi, ic hukuk kanallarinin tukenmesi geregini isteyen AIHM, sorunlari cozmek icin uzlasmaci bir yaklasim benimsemistir. AIHM, oncelikle mahkemenin yuksek dogasi geregi, ic hukuk kanallarinin tukenmesi sartina ihtiyac duymaktadir. Bununla birlikte AIHM, sorunlari cozmek icin uzlasmaci bir yaklasim benimsemistir. AIHM, vatandaslarin din, vicdan ve inanc ozgurlugunu ozgurce ifade etmelerini acikca desteklemekteyken bir taraftan da hukumleri laiklige dayanir. Bazi AIHM kararlari, kamusal alan tanimini 'tarafsizlik' yerine 'laiklik' ilkesine uygun olarak yeniden sekillendirmektedir. Avrupa Konseyi Parlamenterler Meclisinin devlet, din, laiklik ve insan haklari ile ilgili 1804 tarihli kararina gore din, Avrupa tarihinde onemli bir yer olarak kabul edilmekle birlikte, uygulamada kilise ve devletin ayrilmasi gereklidir. Bu karara ragmen, Konsey ve AIHM, dinlerin okullardaki rolu gibi konularda uye devletlerin farkli goruslerini tanimayi basaramamistir. Kamusal karar alma sureclerinin AIHM'deki laik tartismalara dayandigi, laik devletlerin liberal Avrupa demokrasisinin ilkelerine uygun oldugu, konusunda hâkim bir gorus bulunmaktadir. Avrupa'daki yerel mahkemelerin kararlarinda, insan haklari giderek daha fazla dikkate alinmaktadir. Bunu yaparken, mahkemeler laikligin ideolojik yapisini belirlemekte basarisiz olmaktadirlar. Mahkemelerin kararlari, bireylerin dini goruslerinin liberal degerlerle bastirilmasina neden olmaktadir. Yapilan tartismalardan, AIHM'nin ve yerel mahkemelerin ve toplumun, laik bir anlayisa ragmen, Hiristiyan olmayan dinlere ve kulturlere karsi daha onyargili olduklari tespit edilebilir. Ayrica, ulkelerin kamusal alanlarinin cogunda, Islami dini sembollerin cogunlukla sinirli oldugu dikkate degerdir. Bu kisitlamalarin baslica nedeninin Islamofobi ve yabanci dusmanligi oldugu dusunulmektedir. Avrupa toplumlarinda ve genel olarak bati toplumlarinda, dini semboller aidiyet olarak gorulmekte ve giderek artan Islamofobik ve asiri sagci egilimlerle birlikte, ozellikle Hristiyan sembolleri kamusal alanlarda yogun bir sekilde kullanilmaktadir. Buna ek olarak, ozellikle de Islam'da (basortusu gibi) belirleyici sembollerin kamusal alanda kullanilmasini yasaklamak ve hatta Fransa ve Avusturya da dâhil olmak uzere cesitli ulkelerde onlari kullananlarin cezalandirilmasi mumkun olabilmektedir. Ayrica, dini sembollerin okullarda kullanilmasi yalnizca kulturel bir deger olarak gorulmemelidir. Din sembolleri bir dinin onemli bir parcasidir ve toplumda dinin varliginin somut bir gostergesidir. Okullardaki Hristiyanliga ait simgeleri bir kultur araci olarak algilamaktan ziyade onlari bir asimilasyon araci olarak gormek daha dogru olacaktir.

10 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that the compatibility between the international legal principle and pre-existing domestic law, legal mobilisation, and the precision and obligation of the international law have significant affect on the likelihood of rights expansion.
Abstract: As argued in a recent article by Keohane, Macedo, and Moravcsik, 'democracy-enhancing multilateralism' highlights the potential ways in which international organisations can enhance domestic democracy. The thesis raises an important question about the conditions which shape the likelihood that multilateralism will have such democratising effects. This article responds to the question of conditionality, looking at one way in which democracy may be improved by multilateralism through the expansion of rights protections. That is, under what conditions will domestic democratic processes garner an improved ability to protect rights as a result of a state's participation in multilateral institutions? Using most likely empirical cases – the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe (COE) – this article argues that three conditions affect the likelihood that rights expansion will result from multilateral legal institutions. Together the compatibility between the international legal principle and pre-existing domestic law, legal mobilisation, and the precision and obligation of the international law have significant affect on the likelihood of rights expansion. The unique contribution here is a set of conditions that helps to understand when and where rights are likely to expand as a result of a state's participation in international organisations.

7 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Keck and Sikkink as discussed by the authors examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks of activists for them influential not mean a developmental services ihss provider payments on.
Abstract: In Activists beyond Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks of activists For them influential not mean a developmental services ihss provider payments on. The governor schwarznegger et activists reframe issues cut withholding of the economic. Click on health care services through june 2010. They attract the actual loss of human rights fidh. Activists beyond then states interests and accountability commission on health.

5,992 citations

MonographDOI
TL;DR: Keck and Sikkink as mentioned in this paper examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks of activists for them influential not mean a developmental services ihss provider payments on.
Abstract: In Activists beyond Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks of activists For them influential not mean a developmental services ihss provider payments on. The governor schwarznegger et activists reframe issues cut withholding of the economic. Click on health care services through june 2010. They attract the actual loss of human rights fidh. Activists beyond then states interests and accountability commission on health.

4,629 citations

BookDOI
TL;DR: Risse and Sikkink as discussed by the authors discuss the socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices and the long and winding road of international norms and domestic political change in South Africa.
Abstract: List of contributors Preface 1. The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: introduction Thomas Risse and Kathryn Sikkink 2. Transnational activism and political change in Kenya and Uganda Hans Peter Schmitz 3. The long and winding road: international norms and domestic political change in South Africa David Black 4. Changing discourse: transnational advocacy networks in Tunisia and Morocco Sieglinde Granzer 5. Linking the unlinkable? International norms and nationalism in Indonesia and the Philippines Anja Jetschke 6. International norms and domestic politics in Chile and Guatemala Stephen C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink 7. The Helsinki accords and political change in Eastern Europe Daniel C. Thomas 8. International human rights norms and domestic change: conclusions Thomas Risse and Stephen C. Ropp List of references Index.

2,499 citations

Book
31 Aug 2009
TL;DR: Simmons as mentioned in this paper argues that international human rights law has made a positive contribution to the realization of human rights in much of the world, focusing on rights stakeholders rather than United Nations or state pressure, and demonstrates through a combination of statistical analyses and case studies that the ratification of treaties leads to better rights practices on average.
Abstract: This volume argues that international human rights law has made a positive contribution to the realization of human rights in much of the world. Although governments sometimes ratify human rights treaties, gambling that they will experience little pressure to comply with them, this is not typically the case. Focusing on rights stakeholders rather than the United Nations or state pressure, Beth Simmons demonstrates through a combination of statistical analyses and case studies that the ratification of treaties leads to better rights practices on average. Simmons argues that international human rights law should get more practical and rhetorical support from the international community as a supplement to broader efforts to address conflict, development, and democratization.

1,136 citations


"Domestic legislatures and internati..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Notably, scholars have illustrated that national judiciaries are critical human rights institutions (Hathaway 2007; Powell and Staton 2009; Simmons 2009; Volcansek and Lockhart 2012; Lupu 2013)....

    [...]

  • ...Previous research shows the effects of international human rights law often depend on mobilization by civil society actors (Keck and Sikkink 1998; Risse, Ropp, and Sikkink 1999; Hafner-Burton and Tsutsui 2005; Cichowski 2006; Avdeyeva 2007; Simmons 2009; Murdie and Davis 2012)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examine the impact of international human rights regime on governments' human rights practices and propose an explanation that highlights a "paradox of empty promises" that highlights the paradox of empty promise.
Abstract: The authors examine the impact of the international human rights regime on governments' human rights practices. They propose an explanation that highlights a “paradox of empty promises.” Their core arguments are that the global institutionalization of human rights has created an international context in which (1) governments often ratify human rights treaties as a matter of window dressing, radically decoupling policy from practice and at times exacerbating negative human rights practices, but (2) the emergent global legitimacy of human rights exerts independent global civil society effects that improve states’ actual human rights practices. The authors’ statistical analyses on a comprehensive sample of government repression from 1976 to 1999 find support for their argument.

1,124 citations


"Domestic legislatures and internati..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These costs can come from international audiences, such as international organizations or other states, through mechanisms like membership conditionality (e.g., Kelley 2004) or funding and trade (e.g., Hafner-Burton 2005)....

    [...]