# Downward flame spread along several vertical, parallel sheets of paper

TL;DR: In this article, a model for the analysis of heat transfer to the unburned paper is employed to predict the flame spread rate in the presence of multiple flames in the air.

About: This article is published in Combustion and Flame.The article was published on 1985-06-01. It has received 23 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Flame spread.

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TL;DR: A review of the essential ingredients needed to make a mathematical model of fire spread through a fuel bed is given in this article, where a unified mathematical treatment is presented, which permits a more objective comparison of the different physical models.

205 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a microgravity environment was used to create a stationary model aerosol consisting of relatively large (100-300 μm diameter), initially motionless particles, and the development of individual particle flames, motion of individual particles and overall aerosol combustion process could be observed simultaneously.

44 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a geometrical model for fire propagation through arrays of vertically mounted fuel elements is considered, and a critical slope can be found beyond which heat transfer is no longer rate limiting.

31 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, side-edge effects on downward flame spread over two parallel polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs under different pressure environments were investigated. But the results showed that the flame spread rate is controlled by ignition along the side-Edge, rather than at the center of the samples, for experiments with both single and two parallel slabs.

26 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental investigation of diffusion flames spreading along thin solid fuels in concurrent and opposed configurations in a gravity induced flow is presented, where the multiple fuel sheets (2 and 3 sheets) are kept parallel to each other with the separation distance between them varied from 0.5 to 3 cm.

19 citations

##### References

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01 Jan 1981

TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation, and the use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media.

Abstract: A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

5,879 citations

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01 Jan 1971TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation, and the use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media.

Abstract: A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

5,420 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the gas flow in the vicinity of a spreading flame, which depended on the inclined angle, was found to be closely related to the heat-transfer phenomena to the unburnt material.

73 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical model was developed for the upward laminar propagation of flames over vertical fuel surfaces, which applies to small scale fires, making use of a boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and of an ignition temperature to define the rate of flame spread.

70 citations