Abstract: We introduce DRAKE, a numerical precision tool for predicting the dark matter relic abundance also in situations where the standard assumption of kinetic equilibrium during the freeze-out process may not be satisfied. DRAKE comes with a set of three dedicated Boltzmann equation solvers that implement, respectively, the traditionally adopted equation for the dark matter number density, fluid-like equations that couple the evolution of number density and velocity dispersion, and a full numerical evolution of the phase-space distribution. We review the general motivation for these approaches and, for illustration, highlight three concrete classes of models where kinetic and chemical decoupling are intertwined in a way that quantitatively impacts the relic density: i) dark matter annihilation via a narrow resonance, ii) Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation and iii) `forbidden' annihilation to final states that are kinematically inaccessible at threshold. We discuss all these cases in some detail, demonstrating that the commonly adopted, traditional treatment can result in an estimate of the relic density that is wrong by up to an order of magnitude. The public release of DRAKE, along with several examples of how to calculate the relic density in concrete models, is provided at this http URL

... read more

Topics: Dark matter (55%), Boltzmann equation (52%), Decoupling (cosmology) (51%)

More

5 results found

••

Abstract: Astroparticle physics is undergoing a profound transformation, due to a series of extraordinary new results, such as the discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos with IceCube, the direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO and Virgo, and many others. This white paper is the result of a collaborative effort that involved hundreds of theoretical astroparticle physicists and cosmologists, under the coordination of the European Consortium for Astroparticle Theory (EuCAPT). Addressed to the whole astroparticle physics community, it explores upcoming theoretical opportunities and challenges for our field of research, with particular emphasis on the possible synergies among different subfields, and the prospects for solving the most fundamental open questions with multi-messenger observations.

... read more

Topics: Astroparticle physics (58%)

22 Citations

••

Abstract: We present {\tt EvoEMD}, a framework to calculate the evolution of cosmic relics in a Universe with an early matter-dominated (EMD) era. There are mainly two aspects to consider in this regard. First, an EMD era changes the Hubble expansion rate with respect to the standard radiation-dominated (RD) universe. Second, when the EMD era ends, the out-of-equilibrium decay of the dominant matter component may reheat the thermal bath and dilute cosmic relics. We will briefly introduce the cosmology with an EMD era, and then present how it is implemented in the {\tt EvoEMD} framework. Users can study the coupled evolution of different interacting species in an EMD or RD universe. Two important cosmic relics are dark matter and a net lepton number. In order to show the capabilities of {\tt EvoEMD}, we include simple examples of dark matter produced via freeze-out and freeze-in, and also of leptogenesis. Moreover, users can modify the model files in order to explore different new physics scenarios. {\tt EvoEMD} is hosted on {\tt Github} at \url{this https URL}.

... read more

Topics: Physical cosmology (54%), Universe (53%), Cosmology (53%) ... show more

•••

Leonardo Coito^{1}, Carlos Faubel^{1}, Juan Herrero-Garcia^{1}, Arcadi Santamaria^{1}•Institutions (1)

Abstract: We study the case of a pseudo-scalar dark matter candidate which emerges from a complex scalar singlet, charged under a global U(1) symmetry, which is broken both explicitly and spontaneously. The pseudo-scalar is naturally stabilized by the presence of a remnant discrete symmetry: dark CP. We study and compare the phenomenology of several simplified models with only one explicit symmetry breaking term. We find that several regions of the parameter space are able to reproduce the observed dark matter abundance while respecting direct detection and invisible Higgs decay limits: in the resonances of the two scalars, featuring the known as forbidden or secluded dark matter, and through non-resonant Higgs-mediated annihilations. In some cases, combining different measurements would allow one to distinguish the breaking pattern of the symmetry. Moreover, this setup admits a light DM candidate at the sub-GeV scale. We also discuss the situation where more than one symmetry breaking term is present. In that case, the dark CP symmetry may be spontaneously broken, thus spoiling the stability of the dark matter candidate. Requiring that this does not happen imposes a constraint on the allowed parameter space. Finally, we consider an effective field theory approach valid in the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson limit and when the U(1) breaking scale is much larger than the electroweak scale.

... read more

Topics: Explicit symmetry breaking (65%), Symmetry breaking (65%), Discrete symmetry (61%) ... show more

••

Abstract: We emphasize the distinctive cosmological dynamics in multi-component dark matter scenarios and its impact in probing a sub-dominant component of dark matter. We find that the thermal evolution of the sub-component dark matter is significantly affected by the sizable self-scattering that is naturally realized for sub-${\rm GeV}$ masses. The required annihilation cross section for the sub-component sharply increases as we consider a smaller relative abundance fraction among the dark-matter species. Therefore, contrary to a naive expectation, it can be easier to detect the sub-component with smaller abundance fractions in direct/indirect-detection experiments and cosmological observations. Combining with the current results of accelerator-based experiments, the abundance fractions smaller than $10\,\%$ are strongly disfavored; we demonstrate this by taking a dark photon portal scenario as an example. Nevertheless, for the abundance fraction larger than $10\,\%$, the warm dark matter constraints on the sub-dominant component can be complementary to the parameter space probed by accelerator-based experiments.

... read more

Topics: Warm dark matter (68%), Dark photon (60%), Dark matter (58%)

••

Abstract: We introduce a C++ header-only library that is used to solve the axion equation of motion, MiMeS. MiMeS makes no assumptions regarding the cosmology and the mass of the axion, which allows the user to consider various cosmological scenarios and axion-like models. MiMeS also includes a convenient python interface that allows the library to be called without writing any code in C++, with minimal overhead.

... read more

Topics: Solver (51%)

More

79 results found

•••

Nabila Aghanim^{1}, Yashar Akrami^{2}, Yashar Akrami^{3}, Yashar Akrami^{4} +229 more•Institutions (70)

Abstract: We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the CMB anisotropies. We find good consistency with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter $\Lambda$CDM cosmology having a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base $\Lambda$CDM" in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density $\Omega_c h^2 = 0.120\pm 0.001$, baryon density $\Omega_b h^2 = 0.0224\pm 0.0001$, scalar spectral index $n_s = 0.965\pm 0.004$, and optical depth $\tau = 0.054\pm 0.007$ (in this abstract we quote $68\,\%$ confidence regions on measured parameters and $95\,\%$ on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to $0.03\,\%$ precision, with $100\theta_*=1.0411\pm 0.0003$. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the base-$\Lambda$CDM cosmology, the inferred late-Universe parameters are: Hubble constant $H_0 = (67.4\pm 0.5)$km/s/Mpc; matter density parameter $\Omega_m = 0.315\pm 0.007$; and matter fluctuation amplitude $\sigma_8 = 0.811\pm 0.006$. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-$\Lambda$CDM model. Combining with BAO we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be $N_{\rm eff} = 2.99\pm 0.17$, and the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to $\sum m_
u< 0.12$eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base -$\Lambda$CDM at over $2\,\sigma$, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the base-$\Lambda$CDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. (Abridged)

... read more

Topics: Spectral index (60%)

1,810 Citations

•••

Abstract: There is almost universal agreement among astronomers that most of the mass in the Universe and most of the mass in the Galactic halo is dark. Many lines of reasoning suggest that the dark matter consists of some new, as yet undiscovered, weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP). There is now a vast experimental effort being surmounted to detect WIMPS in the halo. The most promising techniques involve direct detection in low-background laboratory detectors and indirect detection through observation of energetic neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs that have accumulated in the Sun and/or the Earth. Of the many WIMP candidates, perhaps the best motivated and certainly the most theoretically developed is the neutralino, the lightest superpartner in many supersymmetric theories. We review the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and discuss prospects for detection of neutralino dark matter. We review in detail how to calculate the cosmological abundance of the neutralino and the event rates for both direct- and indirect-detection schemes, and we discuss astrophysical and laboratory constraints on supersymmetric models. We isolate and clarify the uncertainties from particle physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics that enter at each step in the calculation. We briefly review other related dark-matter candidates and detection techniques.

... read more

Topics: Weakly interacting massive particles (64%), Dark matter (59%), Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (58%) ... show more

1,799 Citations

••

Abstract: Cosmological models with cold dark matter composed of weakly interacting particles predict overly dense cores in the centers of galaxies and clusters and an overly large number of halos within the Local Group compared to actual observations. We propose that the conflict can be resolved if the cold dark matter particles are self-interacting with a large scattering cross section but negligible annihilation or dissipation. In this scenario, astronomical observations may enable us to study dark matter properties that are inaccessible in the laboratory.

... read more

Topics: Self-interacting dark matter (73%), Mixed dark matter (72%), Warm dark matter (72%) ... show more

1,634 Citations

•••

John Ellis^{1}, John S. Hagelin^{1}, Dimitri V. Nanopoulos^{2}, Keith A. Olive^{2} +1 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: We consider the cosmological constraints on supersymmetric theories with a new, stable particle. Circumstantial evidence points to a neutral gauge/Higgs fermion as the best candidate for this particle, and we derive bounds on the parameters in the lagrangian which govern its mass and couplings. One favored possibility is that the lightest neutral supersymmetric particle is predominantly a photino ∼ γ with mass above 1 2 GeV, while another is that the lightest neutral supersymmetric particle is a Higgs fermion with mass above 5 GeV or less than O(100) eV. We also point out that a gravitino mass of 10 to 100 GeV implies that the temperature after completion of an inflationary phase cannot be above 1014 GeV, and probably not above 3 × 1012 GeV. This imposes constraints on mechanisms for generating the baryon number of the universe.

... read more

Topics: Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (68%), Gravitino (63%), Photino (61%) ... show more

1,359 Citations

••

Abstract: An exact relativistic single-integral formula for the thermal average of the annihilation cross section times velocity, the key quantity in the determination of the cosmic relic abundance of a species, is obtained. Since it does not require expansion of the cross section at low relative velocity, it can also be used when the cross section varies rapidly with energy, e.g. near the formation of a resonance or the opening of a new annihilation channel. We discuss approximate formulas in these cases, and we find that dips in the relic density near resonances are significantly broader and shallower than previously thought and that spurious reductions near thresholds disappear.

... read more

Topics: Dark matter (51%)

1,210 Citations