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Book ChapterDOI

Dynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Composite Tube Shafts

01 Jan 2021-pp 51-63

Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) composites have good delamination resistance along with high specific stiffness and high specific strength. Composite tube shafts are modeled with different reinforcement architecture such as multi-axial, stitched, knitted, braided, orthogonal woven, interlock and z-pinned. The in-plane elastic properties at different fiber volume fractions of these composites are obtained from the literature. 3D composite tube shafts are modeled with length: 1 m, internal radius: 25 mm and thickness: 4 mm using modified equivalent modulus beam theory formulation. Modal analysis is carried out, and bending natural frequencies are calculated for different 3D composite tube shafts with E-glass, carbon and kevlar fibers and epoxy as matrix materials. The natural frequency reduces with through thickness reinforcement for orthogonal, knitted, z-pinned and stitched composites. Braided composites tube shafts have higher natural frequencies compared to that of other types.
Topics: Delamination (53%), Specific modulus (53%), Bending (51%), Kevlar (51%), Composite number (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Current and future potential applications for three-dimensional (3D) fibre reinforced polymer composites made by the textile processes of weaving, braiding, stitching and knitting are reviewed. 3D textile composites have a vast range of properties that are superior to traditional 2D laminates, however to date these properties have not been exploited for many applications. The scientific, technical and economic issues impeding the more widespread use of 3D textile composites are identified. Structures that have been made to demonstrate the possible uses of 3D composites are described, and these include applications in aircraft, marine craft, automobiles, civil infrastructure and medical prosthesis.

920 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Adrian P. Mouritz1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper reviews published research into polymer composite laminates reinforced in the through-thickness direction with z-pins. Research into the manufacture, microstructure, delamination resistance, damage tolerance, joint strength and mechanical properties of z-pinned composites is described. Benefits of reinforcing composites with z-pins are assessed, including improvements to the delamination toughness, impact damage resistance, post-impact damage tolerance and through-thickness properties. Improvements to the failure strength of bonded and bearing joints due to z-pinning are also examined. The paper also reviews research into the adverse effects of z-pins on the in-plane mechanical properties, which includes reduced elastic modulus, strength and fatigue performance. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction to the in-plane properties are discussed, and techniques to minimise the adverse effect of z-pins are described. The benefits and drawbacks of z-pinning on the interlaminar toughness, damage tolerance and in-plane mechanical properties are compared against other common types of through-thickness reinforcement for composites, such as 3D weaving and stitching. Gaps in our understanding and unresolved research problems with z-pinned composites are identified to provide a road map for future research into these materials.

542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Adrian P. Mouritz1, Brian N. CoxInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A comparison of substantial published data for 3D woven, stitched and pinned composites quantifies the advantages and disadvantages of these different types of through-thickness reinforcement for in-plane mechanical properties. Stitching or 3D weaving can either improve or degrade the tension, compression, flexure and interlaminar shear properties, usually by less than 20%. Furthermore, the property changes are not strongly influenced by the volume content or diameter of the through-thickness reinforcement for these two processes. One implication of this result is that high levels of through-thickness reinforcement can be incorporated where needed to achieve high impact damage resistance. In contrast, pinning always degrades in-plane properties and fatigue performance, to a degree that increases monotonically with the volume content and diameter of the pins. Property trends are interpreted where possible in terms of known failure mechanisms and expectations from modelling. Some major gaps in data and mechanistic understanding are identified, with specific suggestions for new standards for recording data and new types of experiments.

204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Composites fabricated by VARTM technology with the use of single-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven preforms 3WEAVE ® find fast growing research interest and industrial applications. It is now well understood and appreciated that this type of advanced composites provides efficient delamination suppression, enhanced damage tolerance, and superior impact, ballistic and blast performance characteristics over 2D fabric laminates. At the same time, this type of composites, having practically straight in-plane fibers, show significantly better in-plane stiffness and strength properties than respective properties of a “conventional” type 3D interlock weave composites. One primarily important question, which has not been addressed yet, is how the in-plane elastic and strength characteristics of this type of composites compare with respective in-plane properties of “equivalent” laminates made of 2D woven fabrics. This 2-part paper presents a comprehensive experimental study of the comparison of in-plane tensile properties of two single-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave E-glass fiber composites on one side and a laminate reinforced with four plies of plain weave E-glass fabric on the other. Results obtained from mechanical testing are supplemented by acoustic emission data providing damage initiation thresholds, progressive cracks observation, full-field surface strain mapping and cracks observation on micrographs. The obtained results demonstrate that the studied 3D non-crimp orthogonal woven composites have considerably higher in-plane ultimate failure stresses and strains, as well as damage initiation strain thresholds than their 2D woven laminated composite counterpart. Part 1 presents the description of materials used, experimental techniques applied, principal results and their mutual comparisons for the three tested composites. Part 2 describes in detail the experimentally observed effects and trends with the main focus on the progressive damage: detailed results of AE registration, full-field strain measurements and progressive damage observations, highlighting peculiarities of local damage patterns and explaining the succession of local damage events, which leads to the differences in strength values between 2D and 3D composites.

167 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Craig A. Steeves1, Norman A. Fleck1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Laminated fibre-reinforced composites can be reinforced by through-thickness pins to reduce their susceptibility to delamination. However, the presence of the pins creates resin pockets and disrupts the alignment of the fibres, and may thereby lead to a degradation of the in-plane strength of the composite. Experiments and numerical simulations show that the presence of through-thickness reinforcing pins decreases the tensile strength of the composite by 27%, and the compressive strength of the composite by at least 30%. It is also shown that the pattern in which the pins are inserted has a strong influence on the compressive strength. A pin pattern is identified in order to minimise fibre alignment disruption and thereby maximise the compressive strength.

123 citations