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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.126.090601

Dynamical Symmetries and Symmetry-Protected Selection Rules in Periodically Driven Quantum Systems.

02 Mar 2021-Physical Review Letters (American Physical Society (APS))-Vol. 126, Iss: 9, pp 090601-090601
Abstract: In recent experiments, the light-matter interaction has reached the ultrastrong coupling limit, which can give rise to dynamical generalizations of spatial symmetries in periodically driven systems. Here, we present a unified framework of dynamical-symmetry-protected selection rules based on Floquet response theory. Within this framework, we study rotational, parity, particle-hole, chiral, and time-reversal symmetries and the resulting selection rules in spectroscopy, including symmetry-protected dark states (spDS), symmetry-protected dark bands, and symmetry-induced transparency. Specifically, dynamical rotational and parity symmetries establish spDS and symmetry-protected dark band conditions. A particle-hole symmetry introduces spDSs for symmetry-related Floquet states and also a symmetry-induced transparency at quasienergy crossings. Chiral symmetry and time-reversal symmetry alone do not imply spDS conditions but can be combined to define a particle-hole symmetry. These symmetry conditions arise from destructive interference due to the synchronization of symmetric quantum systems with the periodic driving. Our predictions reveal new physical phenomena when a quantum system reaches the strong light-matter coupling regime, which is important for superconducting qubits, atoms and molecules in optical or plasmonic field cavities, and optomechanical systems.

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Topics: Symmetry (physics) (55%), Quantum system (53%), Floquet theory (52%) ... show more
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7 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Understanding non-equilibrium heat transport is crucial for controling heat flow in nano-scale systems. We study thermal energy transfer in a generalized non-equilibrium spin-boson model (NESB) with non-commutative system-bath coupling operators and discover unusual transport properties. Compared to the conventional NESB, the heat current is greatly enhanced by rotating the coupling operators. Constructive contribution to thermal rectification can be optimized when two sources of asymmetry, system-bath coupling strength and coupling operators, coexist. At the weak coupling and the adiabatic limit, the scaling dependence of heat current on the coupling strength and the system energy gap changes drastically when the coupling operators become non-commutative. These scaling relations can further be explained analytically by the non-equilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation. These novel transport properties, arising from the pure quantum effect of non-commutative coupling operators, should generally appear in other non-equilibrium set-ups and driven-systems.

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Topics: Coupling (55%), Redfield equation (52%), Heat current (51%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We report on Floquet spectroscopy in a cavity-coupled double quantum dot system. By applying microwave induced consecutive passages, we observe Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg-Majorana fringes which are split by holes with the shape of crescents. We demonstrate that these crescents represent a universal feature that stems from a depletion of the predominantly occupied Floquet state at avoided crossings of the Floquet spectrum. The emergence of crescents can be controlled electrically via drive frequency and amplitude, which is perfectly consistent with the simulations based on our theoretical model. These results provide insight to the nonequilibrium population of Floquet states.

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Topics: Floquet theory (62%), Population (52%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVA.104.053711
Abstract: We present theoretical transmission spectra of a strongly driven, damped, flux qubit coupled to a dissipative resonator in the ultrastrong coupling regime. Such a qubit-oscillator system, described within a dissipative Rabi model, constitutes the building block of superconducting circuit QED platforms. The addition of a strong drive allows one to characterize the system properties and study novel phenomena, leading to a better understanding and control of the qubit-oscillator system. In this work, the calculated transmission of a weak probe field quantifies the response of the qubit, in frequency domain, under the influence of the quantized resonator and of the strong microwave drive. We find distinctive features of the entangled driven qubit-resonator spectrum, namely resonant features and avoided crossings, modified by the presence of the dissipative environment. The magnitude, positions, and broadening of these features are determined by the interplay among qubit-oscillator detuning, the strength of their coupling, the driving amplitude, and the interaction with the heat bath. This work establishes the theoretical basis for future experiments in the driven ultrastrong coupling regime and their impact to develop novel quantum technologies with superconducting circuits.

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Topics: Flux qubit (58%), Dissipative system (56%), Qubit (54%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVA.104.053711
18 Nov 2021-Physical Review A
Abstract: We present theoretical transmission spectra of a strongly driven, damped flux qubit coupled to a dissipative resonator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. Such a qubit-oscillator system, described within a dissipative Rabi model, constitutes the building block of superconducting circuit QED platforms. The addition of a strong drive allows one to characterize the system properties and study novel phenomena, leading to a better understanding and control of the qubit-oscillator system. In this work, the calculated transmission of a weak probe field quantifies the response of the qubit, in frequency domain, under the influence of the quantized resonator and of the strong microwave drive. We find distinctive features of the entangled driven qubit-resonator spectrum, namely resonant features and avoided crossings, modified by the presence of the dissipative environment. The magnitude, positions, and broadening of these features are determined by the interplay among qubit-oscillator detuning, the strength of their coupling, the driving amplitude, and the interaction with the heat bath. This work establishes the theoretical basis for future experiments in the driven ultrastrong-coupling regime.

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Topics: Flux qubit (57%), Dissipative system (57%), Qubit (53%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Dissipative Kerr solitons arising from parametric gain in ring microresonators are usually described within a classical mean-field framework. Here, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of dissipative Kerr solitons in terms of the truncated Wigner method, which accounts for quantum effects to lowest order. We show that the soliton experiences a finite lifetime due to quantum fluctuations originating from losses. Reading the results in terms of the theory of open quantum systems, allows to estimate the Liouvillian spectrum of the system. It is characterized by a set of eigenvalues with finite imaginary part and vanishing real part in the limit of vanishing quantum fluctuations. This feature shows that dissipative Kerr solitons are a specific class of dissipative time crystals.

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Topics: Dissipative system (61%), Quantum dynamics (60%), Soliton (55%) ... show more

References
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59 results found


Open accessBook
15 Jan 1995-
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Quantum Dynamics in Hilbert Space 3. The Density Operator and Quantum Dynamics in Liouville Space 4. Quantum Electrodynamics, Optical Polarization, and Nonlinear Spectroscopy 5. Nonlinear Response Functions and Optical Susceptibilities 6. The Optical Response Functions of a Multilevel System with Relaxation 7. Semiclassical Simulation of the Optical Response Functions 8. The Cumulant Expansion and the Multimode Brownian Oscillator Model 9. Fluorescence, Spontaneous-Raman and Coherent-Raman Spectroscopy 10. Selective Elimination of Inhomogeneous Broadening Photon Echoes 11. Resonant Gratings, Pump-Probe, and Hole Burning Spectroscopy 12. Wavepacket Dynamics in Liouville Space The Wigner Representation 13. Wavepacket Analysis of Nonimpulsive Measurements 14. Off-Resonance Raman Scattering 15. Polarization Spectroscopy Birefringence and Dichroism 16. Nonlinear Response of Molecular Assemblies The Local-Field Approximation 17. Many Body and Cooperative Effects in the Nonlinear Response

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Topics: Optical polarization (61%), Quantum dynamics (59%), Spectroscopy (55%) ... show more

3,897 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.55.1142
01 Jan 1997-Physical Review B
Abstract: Normal-conducting mesoscopic systems in contact with a superconductor are classified by the symmetry operations of time reversal and rotation of the electron's spin. Four symmetry classes are identified, which correspond to Cartan's symmetric spaces of type C, CI, D, and DIII. A detailed study is made of the systems where the phase shift due to Andreev reflection averages to zero along a typical semiclassical single-electron trajectory. Such systems are particularly interesting because they do not have a genuine excitation gap but support quasiparticle states close to the chemical potential. Disorder or dynamically generated chaos mixes the states and produces forms of universal level statistics different from Wigner-Dyson. For two of the four universality classes, the n-level correlation functions are calculated by the mapping on a free one-dimensional Fermi gas with a boundary. The remaining two classes are related to the Laguerre orthogonal and symplectic random-matrix ensembles. For a quantum dot with a normal-metal--superconducting geometry, the weak-localization correction to the conductance is calculated as a function of sticking probability and two perturbations breaking time-reversal symmetry and spin-rotation invariance. The universal conductance fluctuations are computed from a maximum-entropy S-matrix ensemble. They are larger by a factor of 2 than what is naively expected from the analogy with normal-conducting systems. This enhancement is explained by the doubling of the number of slow modes: owing to the coupling of particles and holes by the proximity to the superconductor, every cooperon and diffusion mode in the advanced-retarded channel entails a corresponding mode in the advanced-advanced (or retarded-retarded) channel.

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Topics: Symmetry operation (57%), Mesoscopic physics (56%), Andreev reflection (55%) ... show more

1,514 Citations


Open accessBook
B. Andrei Bernevig1Institutions (1)
07 Apr 2013-
Abstract: This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.

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Topics: Topological insulator (60%), Dirac fermion (50%)

1,000 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.67.516
Abstract: The phenomenon of tunneling is investigated for a symmetric double-well potential perturbed by a monochromatic driving force. The analysis is based on a numerical treatment of the quantum map that propagates the system over one period of the external force, and of the spectrum of its eigenphases (quasienergies). The variety in the quasienergy spectrum, such as exact and avoided crossings, leads to novel forms of coherent tunneling. In particular, for specific parameter values of the driving force, we find almost complete localization of the wave packet in one of the wells.

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Topics: Wave packet (52%), Quantum tunnelling (50%)

716 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S42254-018-0006-2
01 Jan 2019-
Abstract: Light–matter coupling with strength comparable to the bare transition frequencies of the system is called ultrastrong. This Review surveys how experiments have realized ultrastrong coupling in the past decade, the new phenomena predicted in this regime and the applications it enables. Ultrastrong coupling between light and matter has, in the past decade, transitioned from a theoretical idea to an experimental reality. It is a new regime of quantum light–matter interaction, which goes beyond weak and strong coupling to make the coupling strength comparable to the transition frequencies in the system. The achievement of weak and strong coupling has led to increased control of quantum systems and to applications such as lasers, quantum sensing, and quantum information processing. Here we review the theory of quantum systems with ultrastrong coupling, discussing entangled ground states with virtual excitations, new avenues for nonlinear optics, and connections to several important physical models. We also overview the multitude of experimental setups, including superconducting circuits, organic molecules, semiconductor polaritons, and optomechanical systems, that have now achieved ultrastrong coupling. We conclude by discussing the many potential applications that these achievements enable in physics and chemistry.

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Topics: Quantum sensor (54%), Coupling (physics) (52%)

579 Citations


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Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20215
20201
20191