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Journal ArticleDOI

Dynamics in the plasma membrane: how to combine fluidity and order

09 Aug 2006-The EMBO Journal (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 25, Iss: 15, pp 3446-3457

TL;DR: The basic concepts of Brownian diffusion and lipid domain formation in model membranes are summarized and the development of ideas and tools in this field are tracked, outlining key results obtained on the dynamic processes at work in membrane structure and assembly.

AbstractCell membranes are fascinating supramolecular aggregates that not only form a barrier between compartments but also harbor many chemical reactions essential to the existence and functioning of a cell. Here, it is proposed to review the molecular dynamics and mosaic organization of the plasma membrane, which are thought to have important functional implications. We will first summarize the basic concepts of Brownian diffusion and lipid domain formation in model membranes and then track the development of ideas and tools in this field, outlining key results obtained on the dynamic processes at work in membrane structure and assembly. We will focus in particular on findings made using fluorescent labeling and imaging procedures to record these dynamic processes. We will also discuss a few examples showing the impact of lateral diffusion on cell signal transduction, and outline some future methodological challenges which must be met before we can answer some of the questions arising in this field of research.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of lipid rafts as it has emerged from the study of synthetic membranes with the reality of lateral heterogeneity in biological membranes is compared.
Abstract: Membrane lateral heterogeneity is accepted as a requirement for the function of biological membranes and the notion of lipid rafts gives specificity to this broad concept. However, the lipid raft field is now at a technical impasse because the physical tools to study biological membranes as a liquid that is ordered in space and time are still being developed. This has lead to a disconnection between the concept of lipid rafts as derived from biochemical and biophysical assays and their existence in the cell. Here, we compare the concept of lipid rafts as it has emerged from the study of synthetic membranes with the reality of lateral heterogeneity in biological membranes. Further application of existing tools and the development of new tools are needed to understand the dynamic heterogeneity of biological membranes.

1,048 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Sep 2009-Nature
TL;DR: GTPase coordination in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is examined both through simultaneous visualization of two GTPase biosensors and using a ‘computational multiplexing’ approach capable of defining the relationships between multiple protein activities visualized in separate experiments, finding that RhoA is activated at the cell edge synchronous with edge advancement, whereas Cdc42 and Rac1 are activated 2 μm behind the edge with a delay of 40 s.
Abstract: The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics. Recent biosensor studies have shown that all three GTPases are activated at the front of migrating cells, and biochemical evidence suggests that they may regulate one another: Cdc42 can activate Rac1 (ref. 8), and Rac1 and RhoA are mutually inhibitory. However, their spatiotemporal coordination, at the seconds and single-micrometre dimensions typical of individual protrusion events, remains unknown. Here we examine GTPase coordination in mouse embryonic fibroblasts both through simultaneous visualization of two GTPase biosensors and using a 'computational multiplexing' approach capable of defining the relationships between multiple protein activities visualized in separate experiments. We found that RhoA is activated at the cell edge synchronous with edge advancement, whereas Cdc42 and Rac1 are activated 2 micro-m behind the edge with a delay of 40 s. This indicates that Rac1 and RhoA operate antagonistically through spatial separation and precise timing, and that RhoA has a role in the initial events of protrusion, whereas Rac1 and Cdc42 activate pathways implicated in reinforcement and stabilization of newly expanded protrusions.

908 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An analytical single-particle tracking method and tool, multiple-target tracing (MTT), that takes advantage of the high spatial resolution provided by single-fluorophore sensitivity to generate dynamic maps at high densities of tracked particles, thereby providing global representation of molecular dynamics in cell membranes.
Abstract: Although the highly dynamic and mosaic organization of the plasma membrane is well-recognized, depicting a resolved, global view of this organization remains challenging. We present an analytical single-particle tracking (SPT) method and tool, multiple-target tracing (MTT), that takes advantage of the high spatial resolution provided by single-fluorophore sensitivity. MTT can be used to generate dynamic maps at high densities of tracked particles, thereby providing global representation of molecular dynamics in cell membranes. Deflation by subtracting detected peaks allows detection of lower-intensity peaks. We exhaustively detected particles using MTT, with performance reaching theoretical limits, and then reconnected trajectories integrating the statistical information from past trajectories. We demonstrate the potential of this method by applying it to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) labeled with quantum dots (Qdots), in the plasma membrane of live cells. We anticipate the use of MTT to explore molecular dynamics and interactions at the cell membrane.

525 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A free‐like diffusion was observed when both the lipid‐dependent and cytoskeleton‐based organizations were disrupted, which suggests that these are two main compartmentalizing forces at work in the plasma membrane.
Abstract: It is by now widely recognized that cell membranes show complex patterns of lateral organization. Two mechanisms involving either a lipid-dependent (microdomain model) or cytoskeleton-based (meshwork model) process are thought to be responsible for these plasma membrane organizations. In the present study, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements on various spatial scales were performed in order to directly identify and characterize these two processes in live cells with a high temporal resolution, without any loss of spatial information. Putative raft markers were found to be dynamically compartmented within tens of milliseconds into small microdomains (∅<120 nm) that are sensitive to the cholesterol and sphingomyelin levels, whereas actin-based cytoskeleton barriers are responsible for the confinement of the transferrin receptor protein. A free-like diffusion was observed when both the lipid-dependent and cytoskeleton-based organizations were disrupted, which suggests that these are two main compartmentalizing forces at work in the plasma membrane.

440 citations


Cites background from "Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..."

  • ...There is still some controversy about the ability of lipids to form domains, which are also known as lipid rafts, in plasma membranes (Simons and Ikonen, 1997; Brown and London, 1998; Edidin, 2003; Munro, 2003; Simons and Vaz, 2004; van Meer, 2005; Marguet et al, 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The regulation of many of the ACs by the ubiquitous second messenger Ca(2+) provides an overarching mechanism for integrating the activities of these two major signaling systems, and cAMP will exhibit distinct kinetics in discrete cellular domains.
Abstract: The adenylyl cyclases are variously regulated by G protein subunits, a number of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases, and Ca2+. In some physiological situations, this regulation can be re...

428 citations


Cites background from "Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..."

  • ...It is important to acknowledge that both of these preparations at best may be frozen snapshots in the lives of what are dynamic assemblies (217, 241) or at worst, preparation-induced assemblies (16, 269)....

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  • ..., the cytoskeleton (217, 241) or caveolin, or 2) there is inherent attraction between partners that find themselves in an appropriate microdomain....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Feb 1972-Science
TL;DR: Results strongly indicate that the bivalent antibodies produce an aggregation of the surface immunoglobulin molecules in the plane of the membrane, which can occur only if the immunoglOBulin molecules are free to diffuse in the membrane.
Abstract: A fluid mosaic model is presented for the gross organization and structure of the proteins and lipids of biological membranes. The model is consistent with the restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules, each arranged in an amphipathic structure, that is, with the ionic and highly polar groups protruding from the membrane into the aqueous phase, and the nonpolar groups largely buried in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. These globular molecules are partially embedded in a matrix of phospholipid. The bulk of the phospholipid is organized as a discontinuous, fluid bilayer, although a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins. The fluid mosaic structure is therefore formally analogous to a two-dimensional oriented solution of integral proteins (or lipoproteins) in the viscous phospholipid bilayer solvent. Recent experiments with a wide variety of techniqes and several different membrane systems are described, all of which abet consistent with, and add much detail to, the fluid mosaic model. It therefore seems appropriate to suggest possible mechanisms for various membrane functions and membrane-mediated phenomena in the light of the model. As examples, experimentally testable mechanisms are suggested for cell surface changes in malignant transformation, and for cooperative effects exhibited in the interactions of membranes with some specific ligands. Note added in proof: Since this article was written, we have obtained electron microscopic evidence (69) that the concanavalin A binding sites on the membranes of SV40 virus-transformed mouse fibroblasts (3T3 cells) are more clustered than the sites on the membranes of normal cells, as predicted by the hypothesis represented in Fig. 7B. T-here has also appeared a study by Taylor et al. (70) showing the remarkable effects produced on lymphocytes by the addition of antibodies directed to their surface immunoglobulin molecules. The antibodies induce a redistribution and pinocytosis of these surface immunoglobulins, so that within about 30 minutes at 37 degrees C the surface immunoglobulins are completely swept out of the membrane. These effects do not occur, however, if the bivalent antibodies are replaced by their univalent Fab fragments or if the antibody experiments are carried out at 0 degrees C instead of 37 degrees C. These and related results strongly indicate that the bivalent antibodies produce an aggregation of the surface immunoglobulin molecules in the plane of the membrane, which can occur only if the immunoglobulin molecules are free to diffuse in the membrane. This aggregation then appears to trigger off the pinocytosis of the membrane components by some unknown mechanism. Such membrane transformations may be of crucial importance in the induction of an antibody response to an antigen, as well as iv other processes of cell differentiation.

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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2005-Science
TL;DR: The new generations of qdots have far-reaching potential for the study of intracellular processes at the single-molecule level, high-resolution cellular imaging, long-term in vivo observation of cell trafficking, tumor targeting, and diagnostics.
Abstract: Research on fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (also known as quantum dots or qdots) has evolved over the past two decades from electronic materials science to biological applications. We review current approaches to the synthesis, solubilization, and functionalization of qdots and their applications to cell and animal biology. Recent examples of their experimental use include the observation of diffusion of individual glycine receptors in living neurons and the identification of lymph nodes in live animals by near-infrared emission during surgery. The new generations of qdots have farreaching potential for the study of intracellular processes at the single-molecule level, high-resolution cellular imaging, long-term in vivo observation of cell trafficking, tumor targeting, and diagnostics.

7,225 citations


"Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The use of fluorescent quantum dots is emerging as a promising alternative to classical fluorescent tags (GFPs and organic fluorophores) (Michalet et al, 2005)....

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  • ...…quantum yields, large molar extinction coefficients, size-dependent tunable emission and high photostability) make them appeal- &2006 European Molecular Biology Organization The EMBO Journal VOL 25 | NO 15 | 2006 3449 ing candidate tags for use with SDT (Dahan et al, 2003; Michalet et al, 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review looks at current methods for preparing QD bioconjugates as well as presenting an overview of applications, and concludes that the potential of QDs in biology has just begun to be realized and new avenues will arise as the ability to manipulate these materials improves.
Abstract: One of the fastest moving and most exciting interfaces of nanotechnology is the use of quantum dots (QDs) in biology. The unique optical properties of QDs make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations, in which traditional fluorescent labels based on organic molecules fall short of providing long-term stability and simultaneous detection of multiple signals. The ability to make QDs water soluble and target them to specific biomolecules has led to promising applications in cellular labelling, deep-tissue imaging, assay labelling and as efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors. Despite recent progress, much work still needs to be done to achieve reproducible and robust surface functionalization and develop flexible bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we look at current methods for preparing QD bioconjugates as well as presenting an overview of applications. The potential of QDs in biology has just begun to be realized and new avenues will arise as our ability to manipulate these materials improves.

5,604 citations


"Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, there is still a need to improve the functionalization of QD surfaces, the flexibility for bioconjugations and single irreversible molecular associations between individually tracked molecules (Medintz et al, 2005)....

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TL;DR: This book is a lucid, straightforward introduction to the concepts and techniques of statistical physics that students of biology, biochemistry, and biophysics must know.
Abstract: This book is a lucid, straightforward introduction to the concepts and techniques of statistical physics that students of biology, biochemistry, and biophysics must know. It provides a sound basis for understanding random motions of molecules, subcellular particles, or cells, or of processes that depend on such motion or are markedly affected by it. Readers do not need to understand thermodynamics in order to acquire a knowledge of the physics involved in diffusion, sedimentation, electrophoresis, chromatography, and cell motility--subjects that become lively and immediate when the author discusses them in terms of random walks of individual particles.

2,952 citations


"Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Brownian motion is a principle that applies to all biological systems (Berg, 1983): as the result of thermal agitation processes, molecules are constantly on the move, colliding with each other and bouncing back and forth (Figure 1)....

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  • ...…plasma membrane dynamics Brownian motion, diffusion and membrane organization Brownian motion is a principle that applies to all biological systems (Berg, 1983): as the result of thermal agitation processes, molecules are constantly on the move, colliding with each other and bouncing back and…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A unified characterization of the best available FPs provides a useful guide in narrowing down the options for biological imaging tools.
Abstract: The recent explosion in the diversity of available fluorescent proteins (FPs) promises a wide variety of new tools for biological imaging. With no unified standard for assessing these tools, however, a researcher is faced with difficult questions. Which FPs are best for general use? Which are the brightest? What additional factors determine which are best for a given experiment? Although in many cases, a trial-and-error approach may still be necessary in determining the answers to these questions, a unified characterization of the best available FPs provides a useful guide in narrowing down the options.

2,807 citations


"Dynamics in the plasma membrane: ho..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As the cDNA encoding the GFP was characterized, a wide variety of monomeric fluorescent proteins have provided attractive potential candidates for monitoring dynamic processes in which different molecular species are simultaneously involved (for a review, see Shaner et al, 2005)....

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