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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00227-021-03852-9

Dynamics of marine predators off an oceanic island and implications for management of a preventative shark fishing program

04 Mar 2021-Marine Biology (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 168, Iss: 4, pp 1-18
Abstract: Oceanic islands are productive ecosystems, and so have higher densities of many marine predators. We investigated the dynamics of elasmobranch and teleost predators in coastal waters off Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, using fisheries-independent data from a preventative shark fishing program from January 2014 to December 2019. We developed a moonlight index that calculates exact moonlight through incorporating lunar azimuth, elevation angle and island topography. We quantified spatial–temporal and environmental drivers of occurrence using zero-inflated mixed models and assessed species-specific catchability in the program. A consistent segregated pattern was observed with higher occurrence of all species at dusk and after-dusk associated with lower luminosity. Scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) and giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis) were found to patrol coastal waters earlier in the day than the other species. Tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier) and bull (Carcharhinus leucas) sharks showed high spatial segregation, potentially reducing competition. Teleost predators were found more frequently inside the coral reef environment of the Marine Protected Area but there was no clear pattern for sharks. Seasonality was observed for giant trevally, stingrays, bull sharks, and giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus australiae), with higher presence during early winter periods related to turbidity, photosynthetically available radiation, and temperature. Inter-annual variation in catch rates suggested that juvenile tiger sharks might be replacing bull sharks in nearshore habitats, and the consequences for mitigation of shark bite hazard are discussed. Operational alternatives are proposed to enhance reducing the impacts of preventative shark fishing upon critically endangered species, improve their conservation and ensure local ecosystem balance.

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Topics: Galeocerdo (57%), Carcharhinus (57%), Coral reef (52%) ... read more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00442-021-05075-7
Yuri Niella1, Paul A. Butcher2, Bonnie J. Holmes3, Bonnie J. Holmes4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
17 Nov 2021-Oecologia
Abstract: Globally, marine animal distributions are shifting in response to a changing climate. These shifts are usually considered at the species level, but individuals are likely to differ in how they respond to the changing conditions. Here, we investigate how movement behaviour and, therefore, redistribution, would differ by sex and maturation class in a wide-ranging marine predator. We tracked 115 tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) from 2002 to 2020 and forecast class-specific distributions through to 2030, including environmental factors and predicted occurrence of potential prey. Generalised Linear and Additive Models revealed that water temperature change, particularly at higher latitudes, was the factor most associated with shark movements. Females dispersed southwards during periods of warming temperatures, and while juvenile females preferred a narrow thermal range between 22 and 23 °C, adult female and juvenile male presence was correlated with either lower ( 23 °C) temperatures. During La Nina, sharks moved towards higher latitudes and used shallower isobaths. Inclusion of predicted distribution of their putative prey significantly improved projections of suitable habitats for all shark classes, compared to simpler models using temperature alone. Tiger shark range off the east coast of Australia is predicted to extend ~ 3.5° south towards the east coast of Tasmania, particularly for juvenile males. Our framework highlights the importance of combining long-term movement data with multi-factor habitat projections to identify heterogeneity within species when predicting consequences of climate change. Recognising intraspecific variability will improve conservation and management strategies and help anticipate broader ecosystem consequences of species redistribution due to ocean warming.

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Topics: Tiger shark (61%), Galeocerdo (55%), Effects of global warming on oceans (51%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12237-021-01020-2
Abstract: Greater Sydney is the largest coastal city in Australia and is where bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are present every summer and autumn. A decade of acoustic telemetry data was used to identify drivers of space use for bull sharks and their potential prey, according to standardised 6-h intervals using dynamic Brownian bridge movement models. Influences of environmental, physical, and biological variables on the areas of space use, location, and predator–prey co-occurrence were investigated with generalised additive mixed models. Rainfall in the catchment affected space use for all animals (i.e. teleost species and both sexes of sharks), with varying temporal responses. Male sharks responded most promptly to high rainfall moving upstream in 30 m). Shark size influenced overlap between sexes, with smaller females less likely to co-occur with larger males (~ 50 cm). Variability in space use suggests spatial segregation by sex and size in bull sharks, with individuals targeting similar prey, yet either in different areas or at different times, ultimately enabling them to exploit different resources when in the same habitats.

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Topics: Carcharhinus (57%)

Posted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.10.23.465439
25 Oct 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: The transition to independent foraging represents an important developmental stage in the life cycle of most vertebrate animals. Juveniles differ from adults in various life history traits and tend to survive less well than adults in most long-lived animals. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain higher mortality including that of inadequate/inferior foraging skills compared to adults, young naive individuals combining lack of experience and physical immaturity. Thus a change in behaviour, resulting in an improvement of skills acquired from growing experience, is expected to occur during a period of learning through the immaturity phase. Very few studies have investigated the ontogeny of foraging behaviour over long periods of time, particularly in long-lived pelagic seabirds, due to the difficulty of obtaining individual tracking data over several years. We investigated the foraging behaviour, through activity patterns, during the successive life stages of the endangered Amsterdam albatross by using miniaturized activity loggers on naive juveniles, immatures and adults. Juvenile naive birds during their first month at sea after leaving their colony exhibited lower foraging effort (greater proportion of time spent sitting on water, higher duration and more numerous bouts on water, and lower duration and less numerous flying bouts). Juveniles reached similar activity values to those of immatures and adults as early as the 2nd-3rd months since independence, suggesting a progressive improvement of foraging performances during the first two months since fledging. We found support for the body-size hypothesis with respect to sex differences in activity parameters according to time elapsed since departure from the colony and month of the year, consistent with the important sexual dimorphism in the Amsterdam albatross. Whatever the life stage considered, activity parameters exhibited temporal variability reflecting the modulation of foraging behaviour possibly linked to both extrinsic (i.e. environmental conditions such as variability in food resources or in wind) and intrinsic (i.e. energetic demands linked to plumage renew during moult) factors.

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Topics: Foraging (60%), Amsterdam albatross (51%), Life history theory (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSMA.2021.102059
Ilka Branco-Nunes1, Yuri Niella2, Yuri Niella3, Fábio H. V. Hazin1  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The Lutz’s stingray, Hypanus berthalutzae, is a recently identified, endemic dasyatid species which occurs in shallow habitats exclusively along most of the Brazilian coast. It is frequently caught as bycatch in different fisheries throughout the range of its distribution, but information on population trends and the impacts of fishing is still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the structure and dynamics in H. berthalutzae relative abundance off Recife, Northeast Brazil, in order to provide baseline data for species management. H. berthalutzae were caught and sampled in a fisheries-independent, standardized longline and drumline survey which used > 500,000 hooks during ∼ 11 years. H. berthalutzae catch composition (N = 86) was characterized by a striking predominance of females, with a female:male ratio of 16:1. Most of these individuals measured were considered to be mature. H. berthalutzae catch rates were largely reduced after hooks previously operating directly on the seafloor were suspended in the middle of the water column. Such an effect was included in a zero-inflated generalized additive model developed to assess spatiotemporal and environmental modulators of H. berthalutzae abundance, for which both month and lunar phase proved to be statistically significant predictors. A higher abundance of H. berthalutzae was observed in the rainy season, from March to July ( χ 2= 19.22; p

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Topics: Bycatch (54%), Abundance (ecology) (53%), Population (52%)


References
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99 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35002501
24 Feb 2000-Nature
Abstract: Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.

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Topics: Umbrella species (60%), Biodiversity hotspot (58%), Red List Index (57%) ... read more

22,175 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-017-17765-5
08 Jan 2018-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV.

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Topics: Microcephaly (57%), Zika virus (53%)

3,305 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.32614/RJ-2017-066
01 Dec 2017-R Journal
Abstract: Count data can be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models when observations are correlated in ways that require random effects However, count data are often zero-inflated, containing more zeros than would be expected from the typical error distributions We present a new package, glmmTMB, and compare it to other R packages that fit zero-inflated mixed models The glmmTMB package fits many types of GLMMs and extensions, including models with continuously distributed responses, but here we focus on count responses glmmTMB is faster than glmmADMB, MCMCglmm, and brms, and more flexible than INLA and mgcv for zero-inflated modeling One unique feature of glmmTMB (among packages that fit zero-inflated mixed models) is its ability to estimate the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution parameterized by the mean Overall, its most appealing features for new users may be the combination of speed, flexibility, and its interface’s similarity to lme4

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Topics: Generalized linear mixed model (60%), Count data (54%), Mixed model (53%)

2,057 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TREE.2008.01.003
Abstract: Recent studies document unprecedented declines in marine top predators that can initiate trophic cascades. Predicting the wider ecological consequences of these declines requires understanding how predators influence communities by inflicting mortality on prey and inducing behavioral modifications (risk effects). Both mechanisms are important in marine communities, and a sole focus on the effects of predator-inflicted mortality might severely underestimate the importance of predators. We outline direct and indirect consequences of marine predator declines and propose an integrated predictive framework that includes risk effects, which appear to be strongest for long-lived prey species and when resources are abundant. We conclude that marine predators should be managed for the maintenance of both density- and risk-driven ecological processes, and not demographic persistence alone.

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Topics: Apex predator (57%), Trophic cascade (57%)

1,038 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10082
07 Jul 2011-Nature
Abstract: Pelagic marine predators face unprecedented challenges and uncertain futures. Overexploitation and climate variability impact the abundance and distribution of top predators in ocean ecosystems. Improved understanding of ecological patterns, evolutionary constraints and ecosystem function is critical for preventing extinctions, loss of biodiversity and disruption of ecosystem services. Recent advances in electronic tagging techniques have provided the capacity to observe the movements and long-distance migrations of animals in relation to ocean processes across a range of ecological scales. Tagging of Pacific Predators, a field programme of the Census of Marine Life, deployed 4,306 tags on 23 species in the North Pacific Ocean, resulting in a tracking data set of unprecedented scale and species diversity that covers 265,386 tracking days from 2000 to 2009. Here we report migration pathways, link ocean features to multispecies hotspots and illustrate niche partitioning within and among congener guilds. Our results indicate that the California Current large marine ecosystem and the North Pacific transition zone attract and retain a diverse assemblage of marine vertebrates. Within the California Current large marine ecosystem, several predator guilds seasonally undertake north-south migrations that may be driven by oceanic processes, species-specific thermal tolerances and shifts in prey distributions. We identify critical habitats across multinational boundaries and show that top predators exploit their environment in predictable ways, providing the foundation for spatial management of large marine ecosystems.

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Topics: Tagging of Pacific Predators (61%), Large marine ecosystem (60%), Marine life (57%) ... read more

961 Citations


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