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Journal ArticleDOI

Dynamics of tourism development and aspects of sustainability: a case study of Ladakh.

01 Jan 2000-Tourism recreation research (Routledge)-Vol. 25, Iss: 3, pp 115-127

AbstractIn a region like Ladakh which is an arid, high altitude, ecologically fragile, strategically located, culturally rich but sensitive area known for its unique Tibetan Buddhist culture, tourism was abruptly introduced with inadequate planning primarily to foster economic development and growth. In a short span of about two-and-a-half decades the self-sufficient agricultural economy following the barter system of trade has been converted to a cash economy, with a high dependence on the tourist industry for revenue and employment generation. It has also resulted in the degradation of physical and socio-cultural environment, which is the prime attraction for tourists. If this trend continues tourists will no longer be motivated to visit this region thus adversely impacting the tourism industry and consequently the economy of the region. Ways have to be found where tourism and environment can co-exist without damaging each other. The need of the hour is to formulate, develop and implement a pragmatic policy of ... more

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
Abstract: Positioning strategies designed by organizations for the destinations might fail when implemented if they are designed from the organization's perspective and not from the consumers' perspective. The chapter develops a positioning taxonomy for a tourist destination by measuring the perception and satisfactions of consumers of the tourism product of Ladakh, India and identifies potential niche markets that could be used in the development of the destination's positioning strategy. Self-completion questionnaires were distributed to tourists visiting the region. Data from 468 completed questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively. Results indicate three positioning strategies for the tourist destination: adventures and sports, natural attractions, and cultural attractions. Also four possible niche markets are identified that can inform the development of the destination's positioning strategy: adventure tourism, cultural tourism, nature-based tourism, and wildlife tourism.

4 citations

01 Jan 2003
Abstract: Using narrative interviews as primary data, the A. considers the recent remarkable increase in traditional folk healers (lha-mo, lha-pa, oracle) who perform shamanic curing and divination in Ladakh, northwest India. He relates this phenomenon to the severe alienation faced by the people of this Trans-Himalayan region in the last decades. Foreign pressures, such as a heavy Indian military presence, the impact of the Muslim-dominated state of Kashmir (of which Ladakh is a part), and Western influences that seem from Ladakh's popularity as a tourist destination, have lead to severe stress within the region. The A. argues that in this situation, the proliferation of shamanism offers one of a number of possible coping strategies.

4 citations

01 Jan 1996

1 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The concept of a recognizable cycle in the evolution of tourist areas is presented, using a basic s curve to illustrate their waving and waning popularity. Specific stages in the evolutionary sequence are described, along with a range of possible future trends. The implications of using this model in the planning and management oftourist resources are discussed in the light of a continuing decline in the environmental quality and, hence, the attractiveness of many tourist areas. Le concept principal de cette communication est que les endroits touristiques ont leur propre cycle d’evolution. Le concept se traduit en modele theorique, qui utilise une courbe s pour demontrer I’accroissement et la diminution subsequente de la popularite d’endroits touristiques. La communication se concentre sur certains stages, les plus importants, de I’evolution, et vise a etablir une gamme de directions eventuelle qui pourront itre suivies par ces endroits. On examine les implications de I’utilisation de se modele dans I’amenagement de resources touristiques, surtout dans I’optique des problemes causes par la diminution de la qualite de I’environnement et, par suite, de I’attraction de beaucoup d’endroits touristiques. There can be little doubt that tourist areas are dynamic, that they evolve and change over time. This evolution is brought about by a variety of factors including changes in the preferences and needs of visitors, the gradual deterioration and possible replacement of physical plant and facilities, and the change (or even disappearance) of the original natural and cultural attractions which were responsible for the initial popularity of the area. In some cases, while these attractions remain, they may be utilized for different purposes or come to be regarded as less significant in comparison with imported attractions.’ The idea of a consistent process through which tourist areas evolve has been vividly described by Christaller: The typical course of development has the following pattern. Painters search out untouched and unusual places to paint. Step by step the place develops as aso-calledartist colony. Soon a cluster of poets follows, kindred to the painters: then cinema people, gourmets, and the jeunesse dorde. The place becomes fashionable and the entrepreneur takes note. The fisherman’s cottage, the shelter-huts become converted into boarding houses and hotels come on the scene. Meanwhile the painters have fled and sought out another periphery periphery as related to space, and metaphorically, as ‘forgotten’ places and landscapes. Only the painters with a commercial inclination who like to do well in business remain; they capitalize on the good name of this former painter’s corner and on the gullibility of tourists. More and more townsmen choose this place, now en vogue and advertised in the newspapers. Subsequently the gourmets, and all those who seek real recreation, stay away. At last the tourist agencies come with their package rate travelling parties; now, the indulged public avoids such places. At the same time, in other places the same cycle occurs again; more and more places come into fashion, change their type, turn into everybody’s tourist haunt.2 While this description has most relevance to the European and, particularly, to the Mediterranean setting, others have expressed the same general idea. Stansfield, 5

3,646 citations

"Dynamics of tourism development and..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Hypothetical models of resort life cycles have been suggested by Noronha (1976), Butler (1980) and Singh (1983). According to Butler, tourism development consists of six stages such as exploration- discovery of the area by tourists; involvement- first signs of appearance of small facilities and increased tourist arrivals; development evolution of the destination from a small scale provider of tourist services to one dominated by tourism industry (impacts are most likely to occur during this stage); consolidation- this is the stage when tourist arrivals begin to level off and the negative impacts begin to be recognized by the host society on a large scale; this is followed by stagnation during which growth of new tourist arrivals stops which may lead to rejuvenation - when another round of development begins - or decline, when tourists lose interest in the destination....


  • ...Hypothetical models of resort life cycles have been suggested by Noronha (1976), Butler (1980) and Singh (1983)....


05 Feb 1998
Abstract: Foreword Preface The context, the issues, a global over-view - Environment, tourism: a marketing perspective Global environmental issues International summary of tourism and environment: Northern Europe, Mediterranean and North America International summary of tourism and environment: East Asia & Pacific, Caribbean, Eastern Europe and Rest of the World Travel and tourism: the world's largest industry The environmental significance of holiday and leisure tourism Managing tourism for sustainability at specific destinations - Managing tourism: the local destination focus Managing tourism at local destinations: the public sector role Managing tourism at local destinations: the private sector role The marketing processes for sustainable tourism at destinations The issues and cases of good management practice in the main sectors of travel and tourism - The 'R' word guide to corporate action on sustainability Sustainability in the accommodation sector, with international illustrations Sustainability in visitor attractions sector Sustainability in the transport sector, with international illustrations Sustainability in the tour operator sector, with international illustrations International cases of good management practice for sustainability - Quicksilver Connections Ltd, Barrier Reef, Australia Kruger National Park, South Africa Edinburgh's Old Town, UK Anglian Water Services, Rutland Water, UK Ironbridge Gorge Museum, UK Epilogue - Positive visions for sustainable tourism Appendices - Select glossary of useful environment, tourism and marketing terms Environmental regulations, market mechanisms and self-regulatory codes of conduct influencing the tourism industry Select bibliography Index.

418 citations

01 Oct 1994

105 citations