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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/AEPP.13160

E-commerce's fast-tracking diffusion and adaptation in developing countries

02 Mar 2021-Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 43, Iss: 4, pp 1243-1259
Abstract: E‐commerce is rapidly diffusing in developing regions of the world. Its share is still small even in modern retail, except in the frontrunner China, but it is developing quickly in Asia and Latin America and emerging in Africa. Patterns of diffusion over regions mirror the supermarket revolution but are lagged by several decades. E‐commerce firms employ strategies to “fast‐track” their spread, responding to challenges of high transaction costs, heterogeneous consumers, and persisting importance of retail small and medium enterprises. Over the past 10–15 years, e‐commerce firms in developing regions have fast‐tracked their adaptation to these challenges by bundling services as well as partnering with retail SMEs and delivery intermediaries.

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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MARPOL.2021.104523
Ben Belton1, Ben Belton2, Leah Rosen1, Lucinda Middleton1  +23 moreInstitutions (4)
25 Apr 2021-Marine Policy
Abstract: Additional co-authors: Arun Padiyar, Suresh Rajendran, A B C Mohan, Ravi Babu, Michael Joseph Akester, Ei Ei Phyo, Khin Maung Soe, Ajibola Olaniyi, Sunil N Siriwardena, Michael Phillips, Shakuntala H Thilsted

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9 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.48565/SCFSS2021-QQ40
01 Apr 2021-
Abstract: By 2050, the United Nations projects that 68 percent of the world population will live in cities (UN DESA 2019). However, with continuous population growth, the number of people living in rural areas of many lowand low-middle-income countries (LMICs) will continue to rise. Two-thirds of the extreme poor live in rural areas (World Bank 2016) and the livelihoods of two to three billion rural people, often the most food insecure and vulnerable, still depend primarily on small farms (Laborde, Parent, and Smaller 2020; Woodhill, Hasnain, and Griffith 2020).

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Topics: Transformation (music) (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.20944/PREPRINTS202105.0469.V1
20 May 2021-
Abstract: World Economy today depends on business investments that are propelled by Green technology, innovations and entrepreneurial activities. In recent years, developing economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America have embarked on easy capital access to Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to facilitate their economic growth. Kenya is among the Middle Level Income Countries that have gained global recognition through entrepreneurial innovations. In this study we assess the role of entrepreneurship towards poverty alleviation in Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation in Kenya; to identify entrepreneurship innovations and their economic contribution in Kenya and to determine the significance of entrepreneurship to Kenyan economy. Methodology of study took a parametric approach through pure desktop studies on entrepreneurship cases in Kenya. Success case studies of entrepreneurial innovations like M-pesa, M-soko and Uwezo Fund initiatives were assessed. The paper notes that activities undertaken in each of these case studies have made great contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development in both urban and rural areas of Kenya.

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Topics: Entrepreneurship (58%), Poverty (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12571-021-01189-1
07 Jul 2021-Food Security
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased food insecurity despite emergency legislation that put more resources into food assistance programs, increased unemployment benefits, and provided stimulus payments. We conducted a survey in the US on food insecurity among low-income Americans during the early months of the pandemic. While we cannot estimate causal effects, we are able to show important associations between food insecurity and nutritional and economic assistance that highlight the need to ensure that those newly at risk for food insecurity are able to connect to resources. For example, our results indicate that those who lost jobs due to the pandemic reported the highest level of food insecurity and also the lowest engagement with food assistance programs. The SNAP expansion appears to be important only among groups with higher levels of income stability including non-minority households and those not experiencing a job loss. Thus, the SNAP expansion may not have had a meaningful impact on those most at risk for food insecurity. Finally, our data highlight the importance of school meal programs during normal times. Those who took advantage of school meals before the outbreak are more likely to have experienced food insecurity during the pandemic-related school closures.

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Topics: Food Assistance Programs (58%), School meal (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13113789
Melissa A. Fernandez1, Kim D. Raine1Institutions (1)
26 Oct 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: For over two decades, digital food retail services have been emerging alongside advances in mobile technology and improved access to wi-fi. Digitalization has driven changes within the food environment, complicating an already complex system that influences food-related behaviors and eating practices. Digital food retail services support an infrastructure that enhances commercial food systems by extending access to and availability of highly processed foods, further escalating poor dietary intakes. However, digital food retail services are heterogeneous–food delivery apps, online groceries, and meal kits–and can be feasibly adapted to nutrition interventions and personalized to individual needs. Although sparse, new evidence indicates great potential for digital food retail services to address food insecurity in urban areas and to support healthy eating by making it easier to select, plan, and prepare meals. Digital food retail services are a product of the digital transformation that reflect consumers’ constant need for convenience, which must be addressed in future research and interventions. This paper will discuss public health opportunities that are emerging from the global uptake of digital food retail services, with a focus on online groceries, food delivery apps, and meal kits.

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Topics: Food systems (62%), Digital transformation (57%), Food processing (56%)

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Open access
31 Jan 1982-
Abstract: This paper is a revised version of Staff Working Paper 444 It reviews various studies which have provided a description of and possible explanation to patterns of innovation adoption in the agricultural sector It therefore covers both empirical and theoretical studies The discussion highlights the diversity in observed patterns among various farmers' classes as well as differences in results from different studies in different socio-economic environments, and reviews the attempts to rationalize such findings Special attention is given to the methodologies which are commonly used in studies of innovation adoption, and suggestions for improvements of such work through the use of appropriate economometric methods are provided The diversity of experiences with different innovations in different geographical and socio-cultural environments suggest that studies of adoption patterns should provide detailed information on attributes of the institutional, social and cultural setting and their interactions with economic factors These may be an important element in explaining conflicting experiences

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2,996 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/451461
Abstract: This paper reviews various studies which have provided a description and possible explanation to patterns of innovation adoption in the agricultural sector. The survey points out that the tendency of many studies to consider innovation adoption in dichotomous terms (adoption/nonadoption) may not be appropriate in many cases where the actual decisions are defined over a more continuous range. More attention needs to be given to the socio-cultural and institutional environment in area studies so that their interrelation with economic factors affecting adoption can be inferred. The presence of several interrelated innovations is another aspect that needs to be considered more carefully in future research, since a number of simultaneous decisions may be involved. Furthermore, the possibility of regular sequential patterns in adopting components of a new technological package should be specifically addressed in future studies. Finally, the impact of differential adoption rates on land holding distribution merits attention in future research.

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2,676 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.0092-5853.2003.00520.X
Abstract: Supermarkets are traditionally viewed by development economists, policymakers, and practitioners as the rich world’s place to shop. The three regions discussed here have the great majority of the poor on the planet. But supermarkets are no longer just niche players for rich consumers in the capital cities of the countries in these regions. The rapid rise of supermarkets in these regions in the past 5-10 years has transformed agrifood markets – at different rates and depths across regions and countries. Many of those transformations present great challenges – even exclusion – for small farms, processing and distribution firms, but also potentially great opportunities. Development models, policy and programs need to adapt to this radical change.This brief article describes this transformation of agrifood systems in Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), and Latin America. First, we describe the traditional retail and wholesale system in the midst of which emerged modern food retailing and its procurement system. Second, we discuss the determinants of and patterns in the diffusion of supermarkets in the three regions. Third, we discuss the evolution of procurement systems of those supermarkets, and consequences for agrifood systems. At the end, we hint at emerging implications for farms and firms in the region.

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Topics: Latin Americans (56%)

1,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1003160108
Abstract: A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

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284 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JEG/LBM007
Abstract: Supermarkets have spread extremely rapidly in developing countries after the ‘take-off’ in the early to mid-1990s. Former analyses of supermarket diffusion have not adequately explained the sudden burst and then exponential diffusion of supermarkets in the late 1990s and early 2000s. We argue that rather than taking demand and market institutional and organizational conditions as ‘exogenous’, as former analyses have tended to do, modern food retailers instead have treated local conditions as substantially ‘endogenous’. To enable their rapid growth, supermarkets undertake ‘proactive fast-tracking strategies’ to alter the ‘enabling conditions’ of entry and growth. Beside the retail investments that have been extensively treated in recent literature, these proactive strategies focus on improving the ‘enabling conditions’ via (i) procurement system modernization and (ii) local supply chain development. One important strategy retailers have used to facilitate (i) and (ii) is to form symbiotic relationships with modern wholesale, logistics and processing firms. An example we address is ‘follow sourcing’, where a transnational retailer encourages transnational logistics and wholesale firms with whom the retailer is working in home markets, to locate to the developing country. This is a spur to globalization of services in support of retail. Follow-sourcing has been treated for example in the automobile manufactures sector (follow-sourcing from spare parts manufacturers)—but not in the food sector. A second important strategy is that of multi-network-sourcing, in which supermarkets source from national, regional and global networks. We analyze that strategy here, adding to the literature which to date has touched on this theme only scantly, and for the first time identify typical paths, present preliminary evidence (from Central America and Indonesia) concerning this multi-sourcing-network strategy and discuss trade implications. One of these is the move to primacy of South–South trade in supermarket sourcing—a new dimension of globalization. By introducing this link of retailer transformation and trade into the literature, we hope to spur a new line of research that is timely in light of the trade, development and globalization debates in developing countries.

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Topics: Globalization (56%), Supply chain (50%)

250 Citations


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