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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15402002.2021.1890597

Early Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Sleep in a Large Spanish Sample.

02 Mar 2021-Behavioral Sleep Medicine (Taylor & Francis)-pp 1-16
Abstract: Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) forced Spain to implement unprecedented lockdown restriction. In this context, different factors could worsen sleep quality, but the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on sleep is still mostly unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we describe self-reported sleep disturbances in people without mental health disorders from a large Spanish sample (n = 15,070).Methods: During the early phase of the lockdown (19-26 March), an online survey was launched using a snowball sampling method and included sociodemographic and clinical data along with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Two items of the IES were employed to assess sleep characteristics. Descriptive and bivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed.Results: Difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep were reported by 23.9% of the sample and was associated in the regression model with age (OR = 1.008, p = .003), female sex (OR = 1.344, p 50% (OR = 1.248, p = .037), having one (OR = 1.208, p = .029) and two or more (OR = 1.299, p = .035) elderly dependents, drinking alcohol (OR = 1.129, p = .024), and a higher score on DASS-21 depression (OR = 1.148, p < .001), anxiety (OR = 1.218, p < .001), or stress (OR = 1.302, p < .001) subscales, whereas being able to enjoy free time (OR = 0.604, p < .001) and painting or listening to music (OR = 0.853, p = .012) were protective factors. Dreams related to COVID-19 were reported by 12.9% of the sample and were associated in the regression model with female sex (OR = 1.617, p < .001), being married (OR = 1.190, p = .015), self-employed (OR = 1.373, p = .032), or a civil servant (OR = 1.412, p = .010), having been tested for COVID-19 (OR = 1.583, p = .012), having infected family or friends (OR = 1.233, p = .001), reading news about coronavirus (OR = 1.139, p = .023), drinking alcohol (OR = 1.251, p < .001), and higher scores on DASS-21 depression (OR = 1.102, p < .001), anxiety (OR = 1.222, p < .001), or stress (OR = 1.213, p < .001) subscales, while protective factors were older age (OR = 0.983, p < .001) and being retired (OR = 0.625, p = .045).Conclusions: These findings could help clinicians and public health systems design and deliver tailored interventions, such as internet-delivered campaigns, to promote sleep quality in the general population.

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Topics: Population (50%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SLEEP.2021.07.021
Sushanth Bhat1, Sudhansu Chokroverty1Institutions (1)
18 Jul 2021-Sleep Medicine
Abstract: This chapter summarizes the known associations between COVID-19 and sleep dysfunction, including insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and nightmares, and touches upon pandemic-related considerations for obstructive sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Treatment strategies and management approaches are also briefly discussed.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAD.2021.08.020
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare self-reported changes on lifestyle behaviors during two phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, and to evaluate clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyles. METHODS: Two cross-sectional web surveys were conducted during lockdown (April 15-May 15, 2020) and seven months later (November 16-December 16, 2020). Lifestyle behaviors were self-reported by a multidimensional scale (SMILE-C). Two separate samples of respondents were analyzed. A multivariate regression model was performed to evaluate the association of SMILE-C scores with demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: The sample comprised, 3412 participants from the first survey (S1) and in the S1 and 3635 from the second (S2). SMILE-C score decreased across surveys (p < 0.001). The rates of positive screenings for depression and anxiety were similar between the surveys, whereas those for alcohol abuse decreased (p < 0.001). Most participants in S2 reported that their lifestyle had not changed compared to those before the pandemic. Variables independently associated with an unhealthier lifestyle were working as an essential worker, lower educational level, previous mental disease, worse self-rated health, totally/moderate changes on diet, sleep or social support, as well as positive screenings for alcohol abuse, anxiety and depression. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and recruitment by non-probabilistic methods limit inferring causality and the external validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Overall lifestyle worsened seven months after the lockdown in Spain. Several demographic and clinical factors were associated with lifestyle scores. The contribution of common mental disorders to unhealthier lifestyles should be considered in order to prevent the negative impact of the pandemic.

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Topics: Alcohol abuse (52%), Mental health (51%), Anxiety (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JSR.13439
Abstract: Nightmares are often associated with psychiatric disorders and acute stress. This study explores how the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced the content of nightmares. A sample of N = 419 US adults completed online surveys about sleep and COVID-19 experiences. Participants were asked about the degree to which they agreed with statements linking greater general stress, worse overall sleep and more middle-of-the-night insomnia with the COVID-19 pandemic. They were also asked if, during the pandemic, they experienced nightmares related to various themes. Logistic regression analyses examined each nightmare content as outcome and increased stress, worse sleep and more middle-of-the-night insomnia as predictors, adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. Those who reported greater general COVID-related stress were more likely to have nightmares about confinement, failure, helplessness, anxiety, war, separation, totalitarianism, sickness, death, COVID and an apocalypse. Those who reported worsened sleep were more likely to have nightmares about confinement, oppression, failure, helplessness, disaster, anxiety, evil forces, war, domestic abuse, separation, totalitarianism, sickness, death, COVID and an apocalypse. Those who reported worsened middle-of-the-night insomnia were more likely to have nightmares about confinement, oppression, failure, helplessness, disaster, anxiety, war, domestic abuse, separation, totalitarianism, sickness, death, COVID and an apocalypse. These results suggest that increased pandemic-related stress may induce negatively-toned dreams of specific themes. Future investigation might determine whether (and when) this symptom indicates an emotion regulation mechanism at play, or the failure of such a mechanism.

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Topics: Nightmare (60%), Anxiety (52%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0259040
24 Nov 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background An upsurge in dream and nightmare frequency has been noted since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and research shows increases in levels of stress, depression and anxiety during this time Growing evidence suggests that dream content has a bi-directional relationship with psychopathology, and that dreams react to new, personally significant and emotional experiences The first lockdown experience was an acute event, characterized by a combination of several unprecedent factors (new pandemic, threat of disease, global uncertainty, the experience of social isolation and exposure to stressful information) that resulted in a large-scale disruption of life routines This study aimed at investigating changes in dream, bad dream and nightmare recall; most prevalent dream themes; and the relationship between dreams, bad dreams, nightmares and symptoms of stress, depression and anxiety during the first COVID-19 lockdown (April-May 2020) through a national online survey Methods 968 participants completed an online survey Dream themes were measured using the Typical Dreams Questionnaire; stress levels were measured by the Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale; symptoms of anxiety were assessed by Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale; and symptoms of depression were assessed using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Results 34% (328) of participants reported increased dream recall during the lockdown The most common dream themes were centered around the topics of 1) inefficacy (eg, trying again and again, arriving late), 2) human threat (eg, being chased, attacked); 3) death; and 4) pandemic imagery (eg, being separated from loved ones, being sick) Dream, bad dream and nightmare frequency was highest in individuals with moderate to severe stress levels Frequency of bad dreams, nightmares, and dreams about the pandemic, inefficacy, and death were associated with higher levels of stress, as well as with greater symptoms of depression and anxiety Conclusions Results support theories of dream formation, environmental susceptibility and stress reactivity Dream content during the lockdown broadly reflected existential concerns and was associated with increased symptoms of mental health indices

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Topics: Nightmare (71%), Bad dreams (64%), Content (Freudian dream analysis) (62%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-96022-2
16 Aug 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: The aims of the current study were to identify factors associated with sleep disturbance and Coronavirus disease-19 related psychological distress (CPD), and to develop a conceptual model to verify the mediating effect of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance. This study recruited patients with schizophrenia. Factors associated with the level of sleep disturbance and CPD were identified using univariate linear regression, and further selected into a stepwise multivariate linear regression model. Using structural equation modeling, a mediation model was developed to test the mediating effect of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance. After estimating with the stepwise and bootstrap regression, higher levels of CPD were associated with higher levels of social anxiety and subjects without a regular diet. Sleep disturbance was associated with a higher level of social anxiety, a history of psychological trauma, chronic disease, and those who did not smoke. The final model confirmed the mediating effects of CPD; whereas, the direct effect from social impact to sleep disturbance did not reach statistical significance. The current study manifests the crucial role of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance, and timely intervention for CPD is warranted.

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Topics: Sleep disorder (58%), Social anxiety (52%)
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35 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2020.3976
Jianbo Lai1, Simeng Ma2, Ying Wang2, Zhongxiang Cai2  +14 moreInstitutions (2)
02 Mar 2020-
Abstract: Importance Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed. Objective To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China. Design, Settings, and Participants This cross-sectional, survey-based, region-stratified study collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 1257 health care workers in 34 hospitals from January 29, 2020, to February 3, 2020, in China. Health care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Main Outcomes and Measures The degree of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress was assessed by the Chinese versions of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale–Revised, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results A total of 1257 of 1830 contacted individuals completed the survey, with a participation rate of 68.7%. A total of 813 (64.7%) were aged 26 to 40 years, and 964 (76.7%) were women. Of all participants, 764 (60.8%) were nurses, and 493 (39.2%) were physicians; 760 (60.5%) worked in hospitals in Wuhan, and 522 (41.5%) were frontline health care workers. A considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (634 [50.4%]), anxiety (560 [44.6%]), insomnia (427 [34.0%]), and distress (899 [71.5%]). Nurses, women, frontline health care workers, and those working in Wuhan, China, reported more severe degrees of all measurements of mental health symptoms than other health care workers (eg, median [IQR] Patient Health Questionnaire scores among physicians vs nurses: 4.0 [1.0-7.0] vs 5.0 [2.0-8.0];P = .007; median [interquartile range {IQR}] Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale scores among men vs women: 2.0 [0-6.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-7.0];P Conclusions and Relevance In this survey of heath care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions in China, participants reported experiencing psychological burden, especially nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline health care workers directly engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and care for patients with COVID-19.

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Topics: Health care (62%), Patient Health Questionnaire (55%), Mental health (54%) ... read more

3,098 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJP.2020.102066
Ravi Philip Rajkumar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a major health crisis affecting several nations, with over 720,000 cases and 33,000 confirmed deaths reported to date. Such widespread outbreaks are associated with adverse mental health consequences. Keeping this in mind, existing literature on the COVID-19 outbreak pertinent to mental health was retrieved via a literature search of the PubMed database. Published articles were classified according to their overall themes and summarized. Preliminary evidence suggests that symptoms of anxiety and depression (16-28%) and self-reported stress (8%) are common psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be associated with disturbed sleep. A number of individual and structural variables moderate this risk. In planning services for such populations, both the needs of the concerned people and the necessary preventive guidelines must be taken into account. The available literature has emerged from only a few of the affected countries, and may not reflect the experience of persons living in other parts of the world. In conclusion, subsyndromal mental health problems are a common response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for more representative research from other affected countries, particularly in vulnerable populations.

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Topics: Mental health (59%), Public health (57%)

1,467 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2020.112954
Yeen Huang1, Ning Zhao2, Ning Zhao1Institutions (2)
Abstract: China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Younger people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Younger people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.

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Topics: Anxiety (54%), Mental illness (53%), Generalized anxiety disorder (52%) ... read more

1,340 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, which began on Mar. 7, 2003, resulted in extraordinary public health and infection control measures. We aimed to describe the psychological and occupational impact of this event within a large hospital in the first 4 weeks of the outbreak and the subsequent administrative and mental health response. Methods: Two principal authors met with core team members and mental health care providers at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, to compile retrospectively descriptions of the experiences of staff and patients based on informal observation. All authors reviewed and analyzed the descriptions in an iterative process between Apr. 3 and Apr. 13, 2003. Results: In a 4-week period, 19 individuals developed SARS, including 11 health care workers. The hospital’s response included establishing a leadership command team and a SARS isolation unit, implementing mental health support interventions for patients and staff, overcoming problems with logistics and communication, and overcoming resistance to directives. Patients with SARS reported fear, loneliness, boredom and anger, and they worried about the effects of quarantine and contagion on family members and friends. They experienced anxiety about fever and the effects of insomnia. Staff were adversely affected by fear of contagion and of infecting family, friends and colleagues. Caring for health care workers as patients and colleagues was emotionally difficult. Uncertainty and stigmatization were prominent themes for both staff and patients. Interpretation: The hospital’s response required clear communication, sensitivity to individual responses to stress, collaboration between disciplines, authoritative leadership and provision of relevant support. The emotional and behavioural reactions of patients and staff are understood to be a normal, adaptive response to stress in the face of an overwhelming event.

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Topics: Health care (57%), Mental health (55%), Public health (55%) ... read more

977 Citations