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Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity up to 1900

30 Nov 2009-
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an evaluation of macroseismic data and a Catalogue of earthquakes and a long-term seismicity evaluation of instrumental data, as well as future challenges in the field of seismology.
Abstract: Preface 1. Macroseismic information 2. Evaluation of macroseismic data 3. Catalogue of earthquakes 4. Evaluation of instrumental data 5. Long-term seismicity 6. Future challenges Appendix: Photographs of researchers in the field References Index.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Euro-Mediterranean Earthquake Catalogue (EMEC) is extended to cover also southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, and the threshold for events south of the latitude 44°N has here been set at M� 4.0, keeping the lower threshold in the northern catalogue part.
Abstract: The catalogue by Grunthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517–541, 2009a) of earthquakes in central, northern, and north-western Europe with M w ≥ 3.5 (CENEC) has been expanded to cover also southern Europe and the Mediterranean area. It has also been extended in time (1000–2006). Due to the strongly increased seismicity in the new area, the threshold for events south of the latitude 44°N has here been set at M w ≥ 4.0, keeping the lower threshold in the northern catalogue part. This part has been updated with data from new and revised national and regional catalogues. The new Euro-Mediterranean Earthquake Catalogue (EMEC) is based on data from some 80 domestic catalogues and data files and over 100 special studies. Available original M w and M 0 data have been introduced. The analysis largely followed the lines of the Grunthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517–541, 2009a) study, i.e., fake and duplicate events were identified and removed, polygons were specified within each of which one or more of the catalogues or data files have validity, and existing magnitudes and intensities were converted to M w. Algorithms to compute M w are based on relations provided locally, or more commonly on those derived by Grunthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517–541, 2009a) or in the present study. The homogeneity of EMEC with respect to M w for the different constituents was investigated and improved where feasible. EMEC contains entries of some 45,000 earthquakes. For each event, the date, time, location (including focal depth if available), intensity I 0 (if given in the original catalogue), magnitude M w (with uncertainty when given), and source (catalogue or special study) are presented. Besides the main EMEC catalogue, large events before year 1000 in the SE part of the investigated area and fake events, respectively, are given in separate lists.

174 citations


Cites background or methods from "Earthquakes in the Mediterranean an..."

  • ...The relation for each catalogue is given only in order to quantify the fit, but is not used to derive Mw....

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  • ...0 is the lower cut-off for events appearing in the southern part of EMEC, i.e., at latitudes south of 44°N. 3.1 Catalogues based entirely on moment tensor solutions The backbone for the Mw harmonization are two European data sets based entirely on moment tensor solutions—here called the original Mw....

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  • ...…(1984) 1 MS Relations (3) 2 mb Relation (8) Ambraseys (1994) 1 MS Relations (3) Guidoboni and Comastri (2005) 1 I0 Relation (7) and Relations (3) Ambraseys (2009) 1 MS Relations (3) Peláez et al. (2007) 1 Mw Oncescu et al. (1999) 1 Mw INFP (2009) 1 Mw Turkish GSHAP Catalogue (2000) 1 Mw…...

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  • ...Following the algorithms presented above the EMEC catalogue could be unified with respect to Mw....

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  • ...The updated IGN (2010) version has only I0 and mbLg to convert to Mw....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas, including the Marmara Sea, the Black Sea and the SW Iberian Margin in the NE Atlantic Ocean, is reviewed within the geological and seismotectonic settings of the region.

115 citations

01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The 18 Bucher umfassende Chronik des Johannes Malalas stellt das alteste erhaltene Beispiel einer byzantinischen Weltchronik dar and bietet damit singulare Einblicke in die Fruhphase einer literarischen Gattung, die fur das byzinische Mittelalter zentrale Bedeutung besessen hat as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Die 18 Bucher umfassende Chronik des Johannes Malalas stellt das alteste erhaltene Beispiel einer byzantinischen Weltchronik dar und bietet damit singulare Einblicke in die Fruhphase einer literarischen Gattung, die fur das byzantinische Mittelalter zentrale Bedeutung besessen hat. Die moderne Forschung sieht das Werk als eine wichtige zeithistorische Quelle fur die Geschichte des 5. und 6. Jahrhunderts n. Chr., das auch Einblicke in kultur- und mentalitatsgeschichtliche Aspekte erlaubt. Trotz steigenden Forschungsinteresses sind viele grundlegende Fragen nach wie vor offen: Welche Ausbildung hat Malalas durchlaufen, woran hat er geglaubt? In welche Gattung gehort sein Werk, das gemeinhin Chronik genannt wird? Kann mittels anderer Textzeugnisse der verlorene Urtext des Malalas erschlossen werden? Im ersten Band der Malalas-Studien, der die Ergebnisse der Auftakttagung des Tubinger Projektes zur historischen und philologischen Kommentierung der Chronik prasentiert, werden insbesondere drei Schwerpunkte beleuchtet: die Frage nach der Person des Autors, nach der Uberlieferung seiner Chronik und der mittelalterlichen (mehrsprachigen) Malalas-Tradition sowie die Frage nach der Gattung der Chronik und ihrer zeitgeschichtlichen sowie intellektuellen Verankerung.

112 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project was conducted to establish the new catalog of seismicity for Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006.
Abstract: This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geophysical, geological, tectonic, and seismicity data, this region is subdivided to nine subregions, consisting of Alborz–Azerbaijan, Afghanistan–Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, Central Iran, Kopeh–Dagh, Makran, Zagros, and Turkey (Eastern Anatolia; after 30° E). After omitting the duplicate events, aftershocks, and foreshocks by using the Gruenthal method, and uniform all magnitude to Mw scale, 28,244 main events remain for the new catalog of Middle East from 1250 B.C. through 2006. The magnitude of completeness (Mc) was determined as 4.9 for five out of nine subregions, where the least values of Mc were found to be 4.2. The threshold of Mc is around 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0, for the time after 1950, 1963, 1975, and 2000, respectively. The average of teleseismic depths in all regions is less than 15 km. Totally, majority of depth for Kopeh–Dagh and Central Iran, Zagros, and Alborz–Azerbaijan, approximately, is 15, 13, and 11 km and for Afghanistan–Pakistan, Caucasus, Makran, Turkey (after 30° E), and Saudi Arabia is about 9 km.

108 citations


Cites background from "Earthquakes in the Mediterranean an..."

  • ...…and Melville 1982), “The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea” (Ambraseys et al. 2005), “Earthquakes in the Mediterranean andMiddle East” (Ambraseys 2009), and “The SHARE European Earthquake Catalogue (SHEEC) 1,000–1,899” (Stucchi et al. 2012) are contained main resources of…...

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  • ...…to this information, some published earthquake catalogs, the same as “A History of Persian Earthquakes” (Ambrasys and Melville 1982), “The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea” (Ambraseys et al. 2005), and “Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East” (Ambraseys 2009) were considered....

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01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (OEANE) as discussed by the authors is the most comprehensive reference work for the field of archaeology and has been published since the early 1990s.
Abstract: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, ed. Eric M. Meyers. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Pp. xviii + 492; vi = 488; vi + 489; vi + 536; vi + 553. $595.00. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (OEANE) is the ultimate work of service. The result of this service is the fourth major reference work of this ilk to appear in this decade. The first of these new tools was the Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman (Doubleday, 1992). The second was the encyclopedia of the Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (CANE), conceived and directed by J. Sasson (Scribner, 1995). Freedman's collection was a form of encyclopedia, confined largely to the biblical world. Sasson's was an extensive survey of Near Eastern culture especially. The third tool, the New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavation in the Holy Land (NEAEHL), is an updated version (1993) of an earlier encyclopedia (1975) assembled under the direction of Ephraim Stem. It contains in-depth articles on every site relating to biblical Israel on which there is a significant bibliography and many on which there is not. Where, especially in the light of NEAEHL, was the niche for the present project? It was in the presentation, in short form but with good bibliography, of information on every major archaeological site in the Near East. In addition, it lay in the presentation of articles on subjects of archaeological method and interest (e.g., a delightful article on "Sheep and Goats" by Melinda A. Zeder, and another and even more provocative one on "Syro-Palestinian Houses" by John S. Holladay). Entries of this sort are far more numerous and far-ranging than the comparable items in NEAEHL. Ideally, in other words, this should be a reference work for site reports, with lines of communication extending out into the detailed reports, and a primer for basic subjects of inquiry in the field of archaeology. The conception is marked by an intelligent clarity. What we have is the World Book of Near Eastern archaeology, a transparent, basics-oriented starting point for students. It would be unfair to hold the articles in this work up against standards to which they were never intended to be held, because the word limits imposed by the publisher (to be fair: in negotiation with the editor) prohibited more nuance. But as examples of their genre they are almost uniformly serviceable and effective; and, periodically, they rise to virtuosity. The editing of the volume was far more intelligent than is typically the case in journal publications, and the result is a generally higher standard of argument and evidence. This is one of the lessons of our recent reference works: major projects attract scholarly energies in a way that the chaos-governed intellectual behavior of the scholarly collective otherwise cannot do. And this in itself tends to raise the bar in terms of the quality of contributions. The better the editor-and the editor's board, of course-the better the publication. This editor and this board secured able contributors. How ably do the contributors overcome the problem of synthesis of large bodies of information? There is a palpable difference between articles about sites outside and inside literate zones. Consistently, the sites from periods and places without a history of documentation fall into the category of general anthropological reportage: competent, relatively detailed, and framed in a larger interlocutory framework. The sites connected with texts directly or indirectly attract far more synthetic treatment, and sometimes, as in the case of Dur-Katlimmu, text seems to overwhelm the archaeology. Indeed, in some articles, highly doubtful textual connections stemming from an earlier era of scholarship-to the biblical patriarchs, for example, or, in the article on Shechem, to the identity of a temple and the etiology of a destruction reported in Judges 9-survive almost without historical qualification. …

100 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of empirical relationships among moment magnitude (M ), surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length and downdip rupture width, and average surface displacement per event are developed.
Abstract: Source parameters for historical earthquakes worldwide are compiled to develop a series of empirical relationships among moment magnitude ( M ), surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, rupture area, and maximum and average displacement per event. The resulting data base is a significant update of previous compilations and includes the additional source parameters of seismic moment, moment magnitude, subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, and average surface displacement. Each source parameter is classified as reliable or unreliable, based on our evaluation of the accuracy of individual values. Only the reliable source parameters are used in the final analyses. In comparing source parameters, we note the following trends: (1) Generally, the length of rupture at the surface is equal to 75% of the subsurface rupture length; however, the ratio of surface rupture length to subsurface rupture length increases with magnitude; (2) the average surface displacement per event is about one-half the maximum surface displacement per event; and (3) the average subsurface displacement on the fault plane is less than the maximum surface displacement but more than the average surface displacement. Thus, for most earthquakes in this data base, slip on the fault plane at seismogenic depths is manifested by similar displacements at the surface. Log-linear regressions between earthquake magnitude and surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length, and rupture area are especially well correlated, showing standard deviations of 0.25 to 0.35 magnitude units. Most relationships are not statistically different (at a 95% significance level) as a function of the style of faulting: thus, we consider the regressions for all slip types to be appropriate for most applications. Regressions between magnitude and displacement, magnitude and rupture width, and between displacement and rupture length are less well correlated and have larger standard deviation than regressions between magnitude and length or area. The large number of data points in most of these regressions and their statistical stability suggest that they are unlikely to change significantly in response to additional data. Separating the data according to extensional and compressional tectonic environments neither provides statistically different results nor improves the statistical significance of the regressions. Regressions for cases in which earthquake magnitude is either the independent or the dependent parameter can be used to estimate maximum earthquake magnitudes both for surface faults and for subsurface seismic sources such as blind faults, and to estimate the expected surface displacement along a fault for a given size earthquake.

6,160 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Aug 1975-Science
TL;DR: The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world, supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers, and foundations.
Abstract: Stable URL:http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819750808%293%3A189%3A4201%3C419%3ACTOAEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-NScience is currently published by American Association for the Advancement of Science.Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content inthe JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/journals/aaas.html.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academicjournals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers,and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community takeadvantage of advances in technology. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.http://www.jstor.orgFri Jan 25 16:37:09 2008

3,869 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the optimal recalibration of NUVEL-1 is proposed to multiply the angular velocities by a constant, α, of 0.9562, which is a compromise among slightly different calibrations appropriate for slow, medium, and fast rates of seafloor spreading.
Abstract: Recent revisions to the geomagnetic time scale indicate that global plate motion model NUVEL-1 should be modified for comparison with other rates of motion including those estimated from space geodetic measurements. The optimal recalibration, which is a compromise among slightly different calibrations appropriate for slow, medium, and fast rates of seafloor spreading, is to multiply NUVEL-1 angular velocities by a constant, α, of 0.9562. We refer to this simply recalibrated plate motion model as NUVEL-1A, and give correspondingly revised tables of angular velocities and uncertainties. Published work indicates that space geodetic rates are slower on average than those calculated from NUVEL-1 by 6±1%. This average discrepancy is reduced to less than 2% when space geodetic rates are instead compared with NUVEL-1A.

3,359 citations

01 Jan 1972
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined more than 100 fault plane solutions for earthquakes within the Alpide belt between the Mid-Atlantic ridge and Eastern Iran and found that the deformation at present occurring is the result of small continental plates moving away from Eastern Turkey and Western Iran.
Abstract: Summary Examination of more than 100 fault plane solutions for earthquakes within the Alpide belt between the Mid-Atlantic ridge and Eastern Iran shows that the deformation at present occurring is the result of small continental plates moving away from Eastern Turkey and Western Iran. This pattern of movement avoids thickening the continental crust over much of Turkey by consuming the Eastern Mediterranean sea floor instead. The rates of relative motion of two of the small plates involved, the Aegean and the Turkish plates, are estimated, but are only within perhaps 50 per cent of the true values. These estimates are then used to reconstruct the geometry of the Mediterranean 10 million years ago. The principal difference from the present geometry is the smooth curved coast which then formed the southern coast of Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey. This coast has since been distorted by the motion of the two small plates. Similar complications have probably been common in older mountain belts, and therefore local geological features may not have been formed by the motion between major plates. A curious feature of several of the large shocks for which fault plane solutions could be obtained for the main shock and one major aftershock was that the two often had different mechanisms.

2,378 citations