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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of ammonium nitrate on nodulation and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata

01 Sep 1987-Vol. 3, Iss: 3, pp 235-241

TL;DR: Stem and root acetylene reduction were strongly inhibited by high mineral nitrogen concentrations; however root nitrogen fixation was more affected than stem nitrogen fixation, and stem nodulation was inhibited.

AbstractThe effect of ammonium nitrate on nodulation and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction activity) was investigated usingSesbania rostrata, a tropical legume with the ability to nodulate both roots and stems. Plants were grown in plastic pots on silica sand and gravel, inoculated one month after sowing and then continuously irrigated with an automatic irrigation system. Four nitrogen treatments were applied: 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0mm NH4NO3. Related symbiotic parameters were evaluated 20 days later. With 3.0mm NH4NO3, root nodulation was inhibited. At that concentration, stem nodulation was not affected, but related nitrogenase activity decreased 85% and was completely inhibited at 6.0mm NH4NO3. Increasing NH4NO3 concentration resulted in a diminution of stem nodule size. Stem and root acetylene reduction were strongly inhibited by high mineral nitrogen concentrations; however root nitrogen fixation was more affected than stem nitrogen fixation.

Topics: Sesbania rostrata (62%), Nitrogen fixation (57%), Sesbania (56%), Nitrogenase (55%), Rhizobium (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This last property, together with its host-specific symbiotic nitrogen fixation, makes Azorhizobium highly specialized for stem nodulation of the aquatic legume Sesbania rostrata.
Abstract: Sesbania species can establish symbiotic interactions with rhizobia from two taxonomically distant genera, including the Sesbania rostrata stem-nodulating Azorhizobium sp. and Azorhizobium caulinodans and the newly described Sinorhizobium saheli and Sinorhizobium teranga bv. sesbaniae, isolated from the roots of various Sesbania species. A collection of strains from both groups were analyzed for their symbiotic properties with different Sesbania species. S. saheli and S. teranga bv. sesbaniae strains were found to effectively stem nodulate Sesbania rostrata, showing that stem nodulation is not restricted to Azorhizobium. Sinorhizobia and azorhizobia, however, exhibited clear differences in other aspects of symbiosis. Unlike Azorhizobium, S. teranga bv. sesbaniae and S. saheli did not induce effective stem nodules on plants previously inoculated on the roots, although stem nodulation was arrested at different stages. For Sesbania rostrata root nodulation, Sinorhizobium appeared more sensitive than Azorhizobium to the presence of combined nitrogen. S. saheli and S. teranga bv. sesbaniae were effective symbionts with all Sesbania species tested, while Azorhizobium strains fixed nitrogen only in symbiosis with Sesbania rostrata. In a simple screening test, S. saheli and S. teranga bv. sesbaniae were incapable of asymbiotic nitrogenase activity. Thus, Azorhizobium can easily be distinguished from Sinorhizobium among Sesbania symbionts on the basis of symbiotic and free-living nitrogen fixation. The ability of Azorhizobium to overcome the systemic plant control appears to be a stem adaptation function. This last property, together with its host-specific symbiotic nitrogen fixation, makes Azorhizobium highly specialized for stem nodulation of the aquatic legume Sesbania rostrata.

32 citations


Cites background from "Effect of ammonium nitrate on nodul..."

  • ...Compared to root nodulation, stem nodulation and related N2 fixation are less inhibited by combined nitrogen (7, 19)....

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  • ...caulinodans system (19), is still poorly understood (27, 28)....

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01 Jan 2007
Abstract: Keywords: small-scale rice farmers, collective action, community rice seed, local innovations, green manure crop, contract farming, participatory technology development, up-scaling, technological configuration, grid-group theory, Northern Thailand Many small-scale rice farmers practise collective action to overcome production constraints, and to generate and redistribute benefits for maintaining improved household livelihoods. The practice is particularly important for small-scale rice farmers in Northern Thailand where rice-based livelihood diversification prevails. The thesis seeks to build an understanding of farmer capacity in cooperation, as well as to identify crucial enabling factors that stimulate collective action to enhance continued learning and adaptation for sustainable development, via analysis of group attributes in relation to four sets of elements: agro-ecological conditions, socio-economic variables, cultural context and the role of government intervention. The study focuses on small-scale rice farming in Northern Thailand , with the aim to understand the social and technical relations involved in rice based farming systems, and to illuminate scope for participatory technology development more generally. This thesis targets rice farmers because of their important contribution to the country's food security and social economic development. The research was carried out during 2003- 2005 in a village with viable forms of collective action (Dong Palan, DPL) and in another village (Buak Mue, BM), included for comparative purposes, where off-farm employment affects labour use and household composition in such a way that collective action eroded or has a different orientation. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data collection. Semi-structured interviews of key informants, group meetings, focus group discussion, farmer workshops and participant observation were all employed. The collective action was explored under four case studies including (i) community rice seed production scheme, (ii) local innovations in rice farming (frog protection as integrated pest management practice, modification of weed slashing machine as hand-held rice harvesting equipment, and double rice transplanting technique), (iii) participatory technology development in green manure crop, and (iv) contract farming. There are various forms of collective actions, and the forms suitable for technology development depend on social and material circumstances in the local context. The varying organizational forms of collective action reveal a hybridity of institutional modalities, which is further described, using grid-group theory, by the level of regulation of individual behaviour and the level of absorption of individuals in group memberships. The most important institutional and individual mechanisms are flexible forms of benefit sharing, recognizing and managing common interests, trust building, and finally, joint problem solving and knowledge exchange among farmers themselves and between farmers and external agencies. This thesis evidently shows that effective technology development and agro-technological innovation depend on social relationships and, more specifically, on the capacity to link to existing forms of collective action. Technology that works is a configuration resulting from a combination of agro-ecological conditions, technological artifacts and social arrangements, including collective action. The incentive for people to participate in technology development as well as the management and development of resources is a major enabling factor for sustainable collective action. In addition, collective knowledge can make an important contribution to technology development and innovation so that people with long experiential learning from trial and error in rice farming are able to integrate their own knowledge with outside knowledge in developing technology. This thesis indicates that horizontal up-scaling worked in the context of DPL which exhibits good social networking among farmers, but not in BM village. The observed variety in organizational forms and social coherence leads to an important lesson for the practice of participatory technology development, namely that attractive technologies may be incommensurable with realities in rural economies. Hence, an insight from this thesis is that constructing a fit-for-all model of collective action for small-scale and sustainable technologies may not be desirable because of the different social and material conditionalities in the field.

16 citations


Cites background from "Effect of ammonium nitrate on nodul..."

  • ...1981), and appears as a probable adaptive response to waterlogging this ability confers on this legume an advantage assimilating both soil and atmospheric nitrogen (Moudiongui and Rinaudo, 1987)...

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BookDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: This work focuses on the taxonomy, biodiversity, ecology and evolution of rhizobia, and the role of symbiosis genes in this taxonomy and evolution.
Abstract: Preface -- Chapter 1. Symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes -- Chapter 2. History of rhizobial taxonomy -- Chapter 3. Current Systematics of rhizobia -- Chapter 4. Genomics and evolution of rhizobia -- Chapter 5. Symbiosis genes: diversity and organization -- Chapter 6. Evolution of symbiosis genes: Vertical and horizontal gene transfer -- Chapter 7. Diversity of interactions between rhizobia and legumes -- Chapter 8. Geographical distribution of rhizobia -- Chapter 9. Environmental determinants of biogeography of rhizobia -- Chapter 10. Effects of host plants on biogeography of rhizobia -- Chapter 11. Rhizobial genomics and biogeography -- Chapter 12. Current status of rhizobial inoculants -- Chapter 13. Screening for effective rhizobia -- Chapter 14. Usage of rhizobial inoculants in agriculture -- Chapter 15. Rhizobial activity beyond nitrogen fixation -- Chapter 16. Working on the taxonomy, biodiversity, ecology and evolution of rhizobia -- Index -- Acknowledgments.

15 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this chapter, the history and current status of rhizobial inoculation application around the world are reviewed briefly, the strategy for screening and choosing effective rhizobia, preparation of inoculant and application in agriculture for specific legumes are discussed.
Abstract: In this chapter, the history and current status of rhizobial inoculation application around the world are reviewed briefly. Then, the strategy for screening and choosing effective rhizobia, preparation of inoculant and application in agriculture for specific legumes are discussed. Next, some microelements and biostimulants are proposed to be used together with rhizobial inoculants to enhance symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Finally, the other roles of rhizobia beyond nitrogen fixation are discussed.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria, and a guide to the collection of and usage of such manuals.
Abstract: A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria , A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

4,740 citations


Book
01 Jan 1970
Abstract: A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria , A manual for the practical study of root-nodule bacteria , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

4,167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This assay was successfully applied to measurements of N(2) fixation by other symbionts and by free living soil microorganisms, and was also used to assess the effects of light and temperature on the N( 2) fixing activity of soybeans.
Abstract: The methodology, characteristics and application of the sensitive C(2)H(2)-C(2)H(4) assay for N(2) fixation by nitrogenase preparations and bacterial cultures in the laboratory and by legumes and free-living bacteria in situ is presented in this comprehensive report. This assay is based on the N(2)ase-catalyzed reduction of C(2)H(2) to C(2)H(4), gas chromatographic isolation of C(2)H(2) and C(2)H(4), and quantitative measurement with a H(2)-flame analyzer. As little as 1 mumumole C(2)H(4) can be detected, providing a sensitivity 10(3)-fold greater than is possible with (15)N analysis.A simple, rapid and effective procedure utilizing syringe-type assay chambers is described for the analysis of C(2)H(2)-reducing activity in the field. Applications to field samples included an evaluation of N(2) fixation by commercially grown soybeans based on over 2000 analyses made during the course of the growing season. Assay values reflected the degree of nodulation of soybean plants and indicated a calculated seasonal N(2) fixation rate of 30 to 33 kg N(2) fixed per acre, in good agreement with literature estimates based on Kjeldahl analyses. The assay was successfully applied to measurements of N(2) fixation by other symbionts and by free living soil microorganisms, and was also used to assess the effects of light and temperature on the N(2) fixing activity of soybeans. The validity of measuring N(2) fixation in terms of C(2)H(2) reduction was established through extensive comparisons of these activities using defined systems, including purified N(2)ase preparations and pure cultures of N(2)-fixing bacteria.With this assay it now becomes possible and practicable to conduct comprehensive surveys of N(2) fixation, to make detailed comparisons among different N(2)-fixing symbionts, and to rapidly evaluate the effects of cultural practices and environmental factors on N(2) fixation. The knowledge obtained through extensive application of this assay should provide the basis for efforts leading to the maximum agricultural exploitation of the N(2) fixation reaction.

2,032 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A tropical legume species with aerial nodules, Sesbania 2.1.1 is reported here on, which grows in flooded soils and has two types of nodules: root nodules like other legumes, and stem nodules.
Abstract: The only recorded instances of legume, species with aerial nodules are for Neptunia oleracea [ 11 and Aeschynomene indica [2,3 J . This latter, which grows in flooded soils, has two types of nodules: root nodules like other legumes, and stem nodules. Stem , nodules of A. indica usually are distributed sparsely along the lower stem and look more like small swellings than conventional Rhizobium nodules. We report here on a tropical legume, Sesbania 2.1. Techniques for structural studies

230 citations