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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/5.0041215

Effect of easy axis alignment on dynamic magnetization of immobilized and suspended magnetic nanoparticles

05 Mar 2021-Journal of Applied Physics (AIP Publishing LLCAIP Publishing)-Vol. 129, Iss: 9, pp 093905
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely studied for use in biomedical applications such as magnetic particle imaging and magnetic hyperthermia. We studied the effect of easy axis alignment on dynamic magnetization of both immobilized and suspended MNPs. For immobilized samples, easy axes of magnetization were aligned by applying a dc field during immobilization. For suspended samples, the applied ac field was set so that the alignment of the easy axes was caused by the ac field. Magnetization (M–H) curves of MNPs with different degrees of easy axis alignment were measured with an applied ac field. We found that the easy axis alignment of MNPs considerably affects their M–H curve and harmonic spectra, which indicates the importance of this alignment for their biomedical applications. The experimental results were quantitatively explained with numerical simulation that took account of easy axis alignment and core size distribution in the sample. We can express the degree of easy axis alignment using a distribution function of the easy axis angle for both immobilized and suspended cases. The distribution function will be useful for quantitatively evaluating MNP performance in biomedical applications.

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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/5.0056481
Keiji Enpuku1, Ahmed L. Elrefai1, Ahmed L. Elrefai2, Jinnya Gotou1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely studied for bio-sensing applications, where suspended and immobilized MNPs can be magnetically distinguished using their different magnetic properties. We study magnetic properties of suspended and immobilized MNPs when the Neel relaxation time is much shorter than the Brownian. We show in both numerical simulation and experiment that they have different magnetic properties such as AC magnetization curves and harmonic spectra even though the dynamic behavior of both MNP types is primarily dominated by Neel relaxation. This difference is caused by the partial alignment of the easy axes in suspended MNPs when an AC magnetic field is applied. We introduce a distribution function for the angle of easy axis alignment. We also show a method to evaluate the distribution function from the measured AC magnetization curve and clarify the relationship between easy axis alignment and the AC field strength. Using the distribution function, we can quantitatively discuss the effect of easy axis alignment on the magnetic properties of suspended MNPs. The obtained results provide a basis for using MNPs in bio-sensing.

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Topics: Magnetic anisotropy (60%), Magnetic nanoparticles (56%), Magnetization (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CHEMOSENSORS9080207
01 Aug 2021-
Abstract: This study presents a measurement approach suitable for the simultaneous determination of both the mass mp and magnetic moment µp of magnetic particles deposited on a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) resonant cantilever balance, which is operated in parallel to an external magnetic field-induced force gradient F′(z). Magnetic induction B(z) and its second spatial derivative δ2B/δz2 is realized, beforehand, through the finite element method magnetics (FEMM) simulation with a pair of neodymium permanent magnets configured in a face-to-face arrangement. Typically, the magnets are mounted in a magnet holder assembly designed and fabricated in-house. The resulting F′ lowers the calibrated intrinsic stiffness k0 of the cantilever to k0-F′, which can, thus, be obtained from a measured resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. The magnetic moment µp per deposited particle is determined by dividing F′ by δ2B/δz2 and the number of the attached monodisperse particles given by the mass-induced frequency shift of the cantilever. For the plain iron oxide particles (250 nm) and the magnetic polystyrene particles (2 µm), we yield µp of 0.8 to 1.5 fA m2 and 11 to 19 fA m2 compared to 2 fA m2 and 33 fA m2 nominal values, respectively.

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Topics: Magnetic nanoparticles (56%), Cantilever (55%), Magnet (55%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/5.0070321
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely studied for use in biomedical application with the magnetic anisotropy constant K playing an important role in determining the performance. We estimated K near room temperature from the coercive field Hc of an AC magnetization (M–H) curve. First, we performed numerical simulation of the AC M–H curve of immobilized MNPs and clarified the dependencies of Hc on the MNP parameters and excitation conditions. Based on the simulation result, we obtained an analytical expression for Hc that was more general and included the previously obtained expression; and in addition, it could be applied to an MNP sample with a core-size distribution. Next, we measured the AC M–H curves of two commercial MNP samples and determined the dependencies of Hc on the amplitude and frequency of the excitation field. The dependencies agreed reasonably well with the analytical results. The K value was evaluated to obtain the best fit between the measured and analytical Hc, and the obtained K values were consistent with those estimated using other methods. The temperature dependence of K near room temperature was also determined. The present method will provide a useful tool to estimate the K value of MNPs.

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Topics: Magnetic anisotropy (55%), Magnetization (54%), Magnetic nanoparticles (51%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMMM.2021.168534
Hannes Albers1, Tobias Knopp2, Tobias Knopp3, Martin Möddel3  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) play an important role in biomedical applications including imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). The latter one exploits the non-linear magnetization response of a large ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles to magnetic fields which allows determining the spatial distribution of the MNP concentration from measured voltage signals. The image-to-voltage mapping is linear and described by a system matrix. Currently, modeling the voltage signals of large ensembles of MNPs in an MPI environment is not yet accurately possible, especially for liquid tracers in multi-dimensional magnetic excitation fields. As an immediate consequence, the system matrix is still obtained in a time consuming calibration procedure. While the ferrofluidic case can be seen as the typical setting, more recently immobilized and potentially oriented MNPs have received considerable attention. By aligning the particles magnetic easy axis during immobilization one can encode the angle of the particle’s magnetic easy axis into the magnetization response providing a relevant benchmark system for model-based approaches. In this work we address the modeling problem for immobilized and oriented MNPs in the context of MPI. We investigate a model-based approach where the magnetization response is simulated by a Neel rotation model for the particle’s magnetic moments and the ensemble magnetization is obtained by solving a Fokker–Planck equation approach. Since the parameters of the model are a-priori unknown, we investigate different methods for performing a parameter identification and discuss two different models: One where a single function vector is used from the space spanned by the model parameters and another where a superposition of function vectors is considered. We show that our model can much more accurately reproduce the orientation dependent signal response when compared to the equilibrium model, which marks the current state-of-the-art for model-based system matrix simulations in MPI.

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Topics: Magnetic particle imaging (62%), Magnetic anisotropy (59%), Magnetic nanoparticles (58%) ... show more

Open accessPosted Content
Hannes Albers1, Tobias Knopp2, Tobias Knopp3, Martin Möddel2  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) play an important role in biomedical applications including imaging modalities such as MRI and magnetic particle imaging (MPI). The latter one exploits the non-linear magnetization response of a large ensemble of magnetic nanoparticles to magnetic fields which allows determining the spatial distribution of the MNP concentration from measured voltage signals. Currently, modeling the voltage signals of large ensembles of MNPs in an MPI environment is not yet accurately possible, especially for liquid tracers in multi-dimensional magnetic excitation fields. Thus, the voltage-to-image mapping is still obtained in a time consuming calibration procedure. While the ferrofluidic case can be seen as the typical setting, more recently immobilized and potentially oriented MNPs have received considerable attention. By aligning the particles during immobilization, one can encode the angle of the easy axis into the magnetization response providing a sophisticated benchmark system for model-based approaches. In this work, we address the modeling problem for immobilized, oriented MNPs in the context of MPI. We investigate a model-based approach where the magnetization response is simulated by a Neel rotation model for the particle's magnetic moments and the ensemble magnetization is obtained by solving a Fokker-Planck equation approach. Since the parameters of the model are a-priori unknown, we investigate different methods for performing a parameter identification and discuss two models: One where a single function vector is used from the space spanned by the model parameters and another where a superposition of function vectors is considered. We show that our model can much more accurately reproduce the orientation dependent signal response when compared to the equilibrium model, which marks the current state-of-the-art for model-based system matrix simulations in MPI.

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Topics: Magnetic particle imaging (60%), Magnetization dynamics (57%), Magnetic anisotropy (56%) ... show more
References
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37 results found


Open accessBook
03 Jul 1996-
Abstract: The concept of a random process the Brownian motion of a free particle - the velocity distribution the Brownian motion of a free particle - the distribution of the displacements one-dimensional Brownian motion in a potential excluding inertia effects the multi-dimensional Langevin equation rotational Brownian motion application to relaxation and loss processes in electric and magnetic fields.

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Topics: Rotational Brownian motion (73%), Brownian dynamics (70%), Diffusion process (68%) ... show more

235 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JP410717M
Abstract: The oriented attachment of magnetic nanoparticles is recognized as an important pathway in the magnetic-hyperthermia cancer treatment roadmap, thus, understanding the physical origin of their enhanced heating properties is a crucial task for the development of optimized application schemes. Here, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the hysteresis losses in dipolar-coupled magnetic nanoparticle assemblies as a function of both the geometry and length of the array, and of the orientation of the particles’ magnetic anisotropy. Our results suggest that the chain-like arrangement biomimicking magnetotactic bacteria has the superior heating performance, increasing more than 5 times in comparison with the randomly distributed system when aligned with the magnetic field. The size of the chains and the anisotropy of the particles can be correlated with the applied magnetic field in order to have optimum conditions for heat dissipation. Our experimental calorimetrical measurements performed in aqueous and...

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Topics: Magnetic nanoparticles (65%), Magnetic hyperthermia (61%), Magnetic anisotropy (60%) ... show more

209 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SREP00157
15 Nov 2011-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Targeted hyperthermia treatment using magnetic nanoparticles is a promising cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms of heat dissipation in the large alternating magnetic field used during such treatment have not been clarified. In this study, we numerically compared the magnetic loss in rotatable nanoparticles in aqueous media with that of non-rotatable nanoparticles anchored to localised structures. In the former, the relaxation loss in superparamagnetic nanoparticles has a secondary maximum because of slow rotation of the magnetic easy axis of each nanoparticle in the large field in addition to the known primary maximum caused by rapid Neel relaxation. Irradiation of rotatable ferromagnetic nanoparticles with a high-frequency axial field generates structures oriented in a longitudinal or planar direction irrespective of the free energy. Consequently, these dissipative structures significantly affect the conditions for maximum hysteresis loss. These findings shed new light on the design of targeted magnetic hyperthermia treatments.

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Topics: Magnetic nanoparticles (65%), Magnetic hyperthermia (64%), Magnetic anisotropy (58%) ... show more

157 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1430867
Keon Mahmoudi1, Alexandros Bouras1, Dominique Bozec1, Robert Ivkov2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Hyperthermia therapy (HT) is the exposure of a region of the body to elevated temperatures to achieve a therapeutic effect. HT anticancer properties and its potential as a cancer treatment have been studied for decades. Techniques used to achieve a localised hyperthermic effect include radiofrequency, ultrasound, microwave, laser and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The use of MNPs for therapeutic hyperthermia generation is known as magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) and was first attempted as a cancer therapy in 1957. However, despite more recent advancements, MHT has still not become part of the standard of care for cancer treatment. Certain challenges, such as accurate thermometry within the tumour mass and precise tumour heating, preclude its widespread application as a treatment modality for cancer. MHT is especially attractive for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer in adults, which has no cure. In this review, the application of MHT as a therapeutic modality for GBM will be discussed. Its therapeutic efficacy, technical details, and major experimental and clinical findings will be reviewed and analysed. Finally, current limitations, areas of improvement, and future directions will be discussed in depth.

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Topics: Hyperthermia therapy (57%)

146 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.4737126
Abstract: It is shown that the magnetic dynamics of an assembly of nanoparticles dispersed in a viscous liquid differs significantly from the behavior of the same assembly of nanoparticles immobilized in a solid matrix. For an assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in a liquid two characteristic mode for stationary magnetization oscillations are found that can be called the viscous and magnetic modes, respectively. In the viscous mode, which occurs for small amplitude of the alternating magnetic field H0 as compared to the particle anisotropy field Hk, the particle rotates in the liquid as a whole. In a stationary motion the unit magnetization vector and the director, describing the spatial orientation of the particle, move in unison, but the phase of oscillations of these vectors is shifted relative to that of the alternating magnetic field. Therefore, for the viscous mode the energy absorption is mainly due to viscous losses associated with the particle rotation in the liquid. In the opposite regime, H0 ≥ Hk, the dir...

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Topics: Viscous liquid (63%), Magnetic nanoparticles (62%), Magnetization (59%) ... show more

127 Citations