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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of KH-BaRoKer-SeongJangTang based on traditional medicine theory on longitudinal bone growth

31 May 2014-Vol. 4, Iss: 2, pp 45-50

TL;DR: Evaluated effects of KBS on bone growth suggest that KBS would be helpful to children who are in retard for their age through the elevation of IGF-I.

AbstractKH-BaRoKer-SeongJangTang (KBS) is a recently developed formulation by using traditional drugs considering traditional medical theory of Oriental books such as ShinNongBonChoGyeong and JuRye, which has been used to improve the growth of child in Korea. Although KBS is usually prescribed to many children who are in retard for their age, its pharmacological effects have not been fully understood in experimental models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of KBS on bone growth. Growth plate thickness and bone parameters such as bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), connection density (Conn.D), and total porosity were analyzed by means of microcomputed tomography. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription5 (STAT5) was investigated using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The thickness of growth plate was increased by KBS. BV/TV, Tb.Th, TbN, Conn.D, and total porosity were improved by KBS. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA and serum IGF-I levels were elevated by KBS. Phosphorylation of STAT5 was increased with administration of KBS. These results suggest that KBS would be helpful to children who are in retard for their age through the elevation of IGF-I.

Topics: Bone growth (59%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells and was demonstrated to attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms.
Abstract: Some amino acids are considered alternative therapies for improving menopausal symptoms. Glutamic acid (GA), which is abundant in meats, fish, and protein-rich plant foods, is known to be a neurotransmitter or precursor of γ-aminobutyric acid. Although it is unclear if GA functions in menopausal symptoms, we hypothesized that GA would attenuate estrogen deficiency-induced menopausal symptoms. The objective to test our hypothesis was to examine an estrogenic effect of GA in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells, and ER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that administration with GA to mice suppressed body weight gain and vaginal atrophy when compared with the OVX mice. A microcomputed tomographic analysis of the trabecular bone showed increases in bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density as well as a significant decrease in total porosity of the OVX mice treated with GA. In addition, GA increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and estrogen compared with the OVX mice. Furthermore, GA induced proliferation and increased ER-β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, estrogen response element (ERE) activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GA also increased proliferation, Ki-67 mRNA expression, ER-β mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Estrogen response element activity increased by GA was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist. Taken together, our data demonstrated that GA has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells.

12 citations


Cites methods from "Effect of KH-BaRoKer-SeongJangTang ..."

  • ...Volumetric analysis was completed using the associated software applications, as described previously [28,29]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that PPE or Arg would have estrogenic and osteoblastic activity and may be useful as new pharmacological tools for treating menopausal symptoms including osteoporosis.
Abstract: Menopause is a significant physiological phase that occurs as women's ovaries stop producing ovum and the production of estrogen declines. Human placenta and some amino acids are known to improve menopausal symptoms. In this study, we investigated that porcine placenta extract (PPE) and arginine (Arg), a main amino acid of PPE, would have estrogenic activities in ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a menopause mouse model, human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) cells, and human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) cells. PPE or Arg significantly inhibited the body weight and increased the vagina weight compared to the OVX mice. PPE or Arg ameliorated the vaginal atrophy in the OVX mice. The levels of 17β-estradiol and the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased by PPE or Arg in the serum of OVX mice. Trabecular bone parameters such as bone mineral density and porosity were also improved by PPE or Arg in the OVX mice. In the MCF-7 and MG-63 cells, PPE or Arg significantly increased the cell proliferation, estrogen receptor β mRNA expression, and estrogen-response elements luciferase activity. Finally, PPE or Arg increased the activations of ALP and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the MG-63 cells. These results indicate that PPE or Arg would have estrogenic and osteoblastic activity. Therefore, PPE or Arg may be useful as new pharmacological tools for treating menopausal symptoms including osteoporosis. Free Korean abstract: A Korean translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/150/3/173/suppl/DC1.

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Journal ArticleDOI
31 May 2014
Abstract: Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) is a tropical evergreen tree of Lauraceae family. It is one of the oldest culinary spices known and used traditionally in many cultures for centuries. In addition to its culinary uses, cinnamon also possesses as a folk remedy of many health disease condition including analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, haemostatic, insecticidal, and parasiticide and memory enhancing property. This study was aimed to assess the acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of standardized methanol extract of the C. zeylanicum. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were done to identify the presence of eugenol as chemical component and support the neuroprotective activity in the extract. Anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of crude methanol extract of C. zeylanicum leaves and cinnamon oil were evaluated by 96-well microtiter plate assay and thin layer chromatography bioassay detection methods. This study revealed that cinnamon oil (IC 50 : 45.88 ± 1.94 μg/ml) has better anticholinesterase activity than methanol extract (IC 50 : 77.78 ± 0.03 μg/ml). In HPLC analysis, retention time of eugenol in cinnamon oil was found to be 15.81 min which was comparable with the retention time (15.99 min) of the reference standard, eugenol. Seven chemical compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis, in which eugenol as an important phytoconstituents. Thus the phytochemicals from C. zeylanicum methanol leaves extract could be developed as potential source of anticholinesterase activity, with particular benefit in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

9 citations


01 May 2014
TL;DR: The approaches and particularities of producing the actual written account of the clinical encounter, or a particular aspect of a case, that may be required by acupuncture practitioners and researchers are examined.
Abstract: The written case that reflects the course of treatment for a person is central to the East Asian medical tradition. This paper examines the approaches and particularities of producing the actual written account of the clinical encounter, or a particular aspect of a case, that may be required by acupuncture practitioners and researchers. It will discuss the influences that can be brought to bear on the construction and production of these accounts. In addition, it will outline and highlight historical approaches to the case record documentation process as well as debate the value and purpose of these. This paper aims both to assist the production of helpful and authoritative case records for practitioners and researchers, and to highlight the usefulness of such case records. Moreover, it will discuss not only why the case needs to be written and for whom, but also which agencies support and control what is written. How can contemporary requirements and traditional views both be incorporated accurately, with context and with meaning? The essence of this paper is that practitioner/patient interactions need to be documented, and it will explore how this can best be supported.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Cys has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells, suggesting the potential use of Cys as a new agent for postmenopausal women.
Abstract: Cysteine (Cys) is well known to be involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, serving as a source of sulfides in the body. Amino acids are known to improve menopausal symptoms and significantly reduce morbidity. This study aims to find an unrevealed effect of Cys with estrogenic and osteogenic actions. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice were treated with Cys daily for 8 weeks. Estrogen-related and osteoporosis-related factors were analyzed in the vagina, serum, and tibia. Cys was treated in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and ER-positive human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. Cysteine administration ameliorated overweightness of the body and vaginal atrophy in the OVX mice. Cysteine increased the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 17β-estradiol in the serum of the OVX mice and improved the bone mineral density in the OVX mice. In MG-63 cells, Cys increased the proliferation, ERβ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and estrogen response element (ERE) activity. Cysteine increased the ALP activity and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In MCF-7 cells, Cys also increased the proliferation, ERβ mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Cys has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells. The novel insights gained here strongly imply the potential use of Cys as a new agent for postmenopausal women.

5 citations


Cites methods from "Effect of KH-BaRoKer-SeongJangTang ..."

  • ...The 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional information on bone geometry were provided using high-resolution microcomputed tomography, as previously described.(25)...

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"Effect of KH-BaRoKer-SeongJangTang ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The phosphorylated STAT proteins translocate to the nucleus, where they bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene transcription (Le Roith et al., 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with COPD and severe asthma and in asthmatic patients who smoke HDAC2 is markedly reduced in activity and expression as a result of oxidative/nitrative stress so that inflammation becomes resistant to the anti‐inflammatory actions of corticosteroids, and theophylline, by activating HDAC, may reverse this cortiosteroid resistance.
Abstract: Corticosteroids are the most effective anti-inflammatory therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma but are relatively ineffective in other diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic inflammation is characterised by the increased expression of multiple inflammatory genes that are regulated by proinflammatory transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1, that bind to and activate coactivator molecules, which then acetylate core histones to switch on gene transcription. Corticosteroids suppress the multiple inflammatory genes that are activated in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, mainly by reversing histone acetylation of activated inflammatory genes through binding of liganded glucocorticoid receptors (GR) to coactivators and recruitment of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) to the activated transcription complex. At higher concentrations of corticosteroids GR homodimers also interact with DNA recognition sites to active transcription of anti-inflammatory genes and to inhibit transcription of several genes linked to corticosteroid side effects. In patients with COPD and severe asthma and in asthmatic patients who smoke HDAC2 is markedly reduced in activity and expression as a result of oxidative/nitrative stress so that inflammation becomes resistant to the anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids. Theophylline, by activating HDAC, may reverse this corticosteroid resistance. This research may lead to the development of novel anti-inflammatory approaches to manage severe inflammatory diseases.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model in which the growth hormone receptor exists as a constitutive dimer is discussed in the light of salient information from closely related class 1 cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin, prolactin and thrombopOietin receptors.
Abstract: Growth hormone is widely used clinically to promote growth and anabolism and for other purposes. Its actions are mediated via the growth hormone receptor, both directly by tyrosine kinase activation and indirectly by induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Insensitivity to growth hormone (Laron syndrome) can result from mutations in the growth hormone receptor and can be treated with IGF-1. This treatment is, however, not fully effective owing to the loss of the direct actions of growth hormone and altered availability of exogenous IGF-1. Excessive activation of the growth hormone receptor by circulating growth hormone results in gigantism and acromegaly, whereas cell transformation and cancer can occur in response to autocrine activation of the receptor. Advances in understanding the mechanism of receptor activation have led to a model in which the growth hormone receptor exists as a constitutive dimer. Binding of the hormone realigns the subunits by rotation and closer apposition, resulting in juxtaposition of the catalytic domains of the associated tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 below the cell membrane. This change results in activation of JAK2 by transphosphorylation, then phosphorylation of receptor tyrosines in the cytoplasmic domain, which enables binding of adaptor proteins, as well as direct phosphorylation of target proteins. This model is discussed in the light of salient information from closely related class 1 cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin, prolactin and thrombopoietin receptors.

274 citations


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  • ...Actions of GH are initiated by binding to the GH receptor (GHR) on the cell surface (Brooks and Waters, 2010)....

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