scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of lime and fly ash on swell, consolidation and shear strength characteristics of expansive clays: a comparative study

B. R. Phanikumar1
04 Jun 2009-Geomechanics and Geoengineering (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 4, Iss: 2, pp 175-181
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of lime and fly ash on free swell index (FSI), swell potential, swelling pressure, coefficient of consolidation, compression index, secondary consolidation characteristics and shear strength was compared.
Abstract: Expansive soils swell on absorbing water and shrink on evaporation thereof. Because of this alternate swelling and shrinkage, civil engineering structures founded in them are severely damaged. For counteracting the problems of expansive soils, different innovative techniques were suggested. Stabilization of expansive clays with various additives has also met with considerable success. This paper presents, by comparison, the effect of lime and fly ash on free swell index (FSI), swell potential, swelling pressure, coefficient of consolidation, compression index, secondary consolidation characteristics and shear strength. Lime content (weight of lime/weight of dry soil) was varied as 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% and fly ash content (weight of fly ash/weight of dry soil) as 0%, 10% and 20%. A fly ash content of 20% showed significant reduction in swell potential, swelling pressure, compression index and secondary consolidation characteristics and resulted in increase in maximum dry density and shear strength. Swell pote...
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the influences of bagasse fibres and hydrated lime addition on the engineering properties and shrink-swell behaviour of stabilised expansive soils.

121 citations


Cites background from "Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..."

  • ...Moreover, soil improvement and reinforcement using industrial waste by-products consisting of fly ash (Phanikumar, 2009), bagasse ash (Osinubi et al., 2009; Dang et al., 2015), rice husk ash (Sharma et al., 2008), coconut coir fibres (Jayasree et al., 2015), plastic fibres and bagasse fibres, just…...

    [...]

  • ...Moreover, soil improvement and reinforcement using industrial waste by-products consisting of fly ash (Phanikumar, 2009), bagasse ash (Osinubi et al....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of hydrated lime on the strength and microstructure of lime treated clays was investigated, and the results indicated that the addition of lime resulted in a reduction in the plasticity of kaolin and an improvement in compaction properties.
Abstract: Lime stabilization is one of the techniques that can be used for improving the engineering properties, particularly the strength, of soft clays. This paper aims to investigate the effect of hydrated lime on the strength and microstructure of lime treated clays. In order to illustrate such effect, a series of laboratory tests were conducted. Atterberg limits, compaction tests, unconfined compressive strength tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were carried out on kaolin clay mixed with 5% hydrated lime. The results indicated that the addition of lime resulted in a reduction in the plasticity of kaolin and an improvement in compaction properties. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of stabilized clay experienced an increase with lime addition. Two variables influencing the amount of strength developed were studied. These variables included curing time and water content. Curing time contributed to an increase in the UCS, from 183 kPa to 390 kPa, that is approximately twice of the strength of untreated kaolin. SEM analysis showed the presence of the cementious products in the kaolin clay resulted from lime-clay reaction.

56 citations


Cites background from "Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..."

  • ...According to [7] and [8], the reduction in the plasticity makes soils more friable and easily workable....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comparative study of utilization of fly ash, C&D waste and lime in soil stabilization is presented, in which a number of tests such as differential free swell, pH, compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California bearing ratio (CBR) were conducted to study the effect of addition of flies ash, c&d waste, and lime on geotechnical characteristics of soil.
Abstract: Improvement of strength and subgrade characteristics of soil by stabilization is one of the popular techniques nowadays. The use of construction demolition (C&D) waste in soil stabilization is still under research as much work has not been done in this area. This paper presents a comparative study of utilization of fly ash, C&D waste and lime in soil stabilization. A number of tests such as differential free swell, pH, compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California bearing ratio (CBR) were conducted to study the effect of addition of fly ash, C&D waste and lime on geotechnical characteristics of soil. Based on results, it is concluded that differential free swell and maximum dry density decrease, whereas pH, UCS and soaked CBR value increase with addition of fly ash, C&D waste and lime. The increase in UCS is almost the same for lime and C&D waste at 7 days which indicates that the usage of C&D waste compared with that of lime is economical, whereas if used in pavement subgrade lime is better material because of higher CBR value. The UCS at 28 days is more for fly ash compared with that for lime and C&D waste.

55 citations


Cites background or result from "Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..."

  • ...Phanikumar (2009) concluded that a fly ash content of 20 % showed significant reduction in swelling and secondary consolidation characteristics and resulted in increase in maximum dry density and shear strength....

    [...]

  • ...The reduction in differential free swell due to addition of fly ash has been reported by other researchers (Prabakar et al. 2004; Phanikumar and Sharma 2004; Phanikumar 2009; Sharma et al. 2012)....

    [...]

  • ...The decrease in differential free swell up to 4 % lime content is due to flocculation of the soil particles on addition of lime, thus increasing the particle size and resultant decrease in the specific surface (Chen 1988; Zhang and Cao 2002; Phanikumar 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...due to addition of fly ash has been reported by other researchers (Prabakar et al. 2004; Phanikumar and Sharma 2004; Phanikumar 2009; Sharma et al. 2012)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
J. Pooni1, Filippo Giustozzi1, Dilan Robert1, Sujeeva Setunge1, B O'Donnell 
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the durability performance of the enzymatic stabilization of expansive soils in road pavements subjected to moisture fluctuation and found that the strength of stabilized soils was considerably increased with the addition of enzyme based stabilizer, revealing its ability to maintain the material stiffness over moisture fluctuations.
Abstract: Expansive soils are problematic and susceptible to ground movements, causing significant damage to overlying structures and reduction of bearing capacity Geotechnical engineering has long recognized that the moisture variation triggers the expansive nature of soils resulting in its swell and shrinkage Numerous stabilizing additives have been used to treat expansive soils such as lime, cement and fly ash However, the use of bio-enzymes as a soil stabilizing agent is not currently fully understood This study examines the durability performance of the enzymatic stabilization of expansive soils in road pavements subjected to moisture fluctuation Number of experiments was performed under controlled conditions to investigate the mechanical and hydraulic response of stabilized soils subjected to cyclic moisture degradation at various initial moisture contents covering practical moisture ranges in applicable with road pavements Results showed that strength of stabilized soils was considerably increased with the addition of enzyme based stabilizer, revealing its ability to maintain the material stiffness over moisture fluctuation While wetting and drying tests had damaging effects on the UCS, enzyme based stabilization served to preserve soil strength effectively throughout the loading cycles Results obtained from the mechanical/hydraulics tests were further elaborated using imaging analysis which provides an insight into the mechanism of enzyme based stabilization and the influence of moisture when using this novel stabilization approach This research will substantially benefit geotechnical applications including cost-effective and sustainable road constructions

50 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new elasto-plastic framework for unsaturated soils is proposed, involving coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and mechanical behaviour, and a specific constitutive model for isotropic stress states is proposed.
Abstract: Consideration of the different roles of pore air pressure, pore water pressure within bulk water and pore water pressure within meniscus water suggests that the degree of saturation will have a significant influence on the stress–strain behaviour of an unsaturated soil, in addition to any influence of suction. This suggestion is supported by experimental evidence. In the light of this, a new elasto-plastic framework for unsaturated soils is proposed, involving coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and mechanical behaviour. Within the proposed framework, plastic changes of degree of saturation influence the stress–strain behaviour, and plastic volumetric strains influence the water retention behaviour. A specific constitutive model for isotropic stress states is proposed, and model predictions are compared with experimental results, in order to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the new framework. Forms of behaviour that can be represented include proper transitions between saturated and unsaturated types ...

719 citations


"Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Moreover, upon wetting an expansive soil can swell or exhibit collapse compression depending upon stress and suction history of the soil (Gens and Alonso 1992, Gallipoli et al. 2003, Wheeler et al. 2003)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a framework for describing the mechanical behavior of unsaturated expansive clays is presented, which is an extension of an existing formulation developed for unsaturated soils of low activity.
Abstract: The paper presents a framework for describing the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated expansive clays. It is an extension of an existing formulation developed for unsaturated soils of low activity....

662 citations


"Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Moreover, upon wetting an expansive soil can swell or exhibit collapse compression depending upon stress and suction history of the soil (Gens and Alonso 1992, Gallipoli et al. 2003, Wheeler et al. 2003)....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: In this article, an extension of the Fondation Reference Record is described. But this record was created on 2004-09-07, modified on 2016-08-08.
Abstract: Keywords: Expension ; Fissuration ; Gonflement ; Fondation Reference Record created on 2004-09-07, modified on 2016-08-08

619 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an elasto-plastic model for unsaturated soils is presented that takes explicitly into account the mechanisms with which suction affects mechanical behaviour as well as their dependence on degree of saturation.
Abstract: The paper presents an elasto-plastic model for unsaturated soils that takes explicitly into account the mechanisms with which suction affects mechanical behaviour as well as their dependence on degree of saturation. The proposed model is formulated in terms of two constitutive variables directly related to these suction mechanisms: the average skeleton stress, which includes the average fluid pressure acting on the soil pores, and an additional scalar constitutive variable, ξ, related to the magnitude of the bonding effect exerted by meniscus water at the inter-particle contacts. The formulation of the model in terms of variables closely related to specific behaviour mechanisms leads to a remarkable unification of experimental results of tests carried out with different suctions. The analysis of experimental isotropic compression data strongly suggests that the quotient between the void ratio, e, of an unsaturated soil and the void ratio es, corresponding to the saturated state at the same average soil sk...

541 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A discussion of an earlier paper with the aforementioned title by E. Cokca, published in this journal (Volume 127, Number 7, July 2001), is presented in this article, where the discusser states that the author has presented an interesting paper that enriches the literature and furthers knowledge on fly ash, especially as it concerns this product outside the U.S.
Abstract: A discussion of an earlier paper with the aforementioned title by E. Cokca, published in this journal (Volume 127, Number 7, July 2001), is presented. The discusser states that the author has presented an interesting paper that enriches the literature and furthers knowledge on fly ash, especially as it concerns this product outside the U.S. Based on his experience in this field, the discusser offers some comments on: fly ash; the origin of coal; lime, cement, and fly ash; swelling potential; and x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, as they relate to the author's work. Closure from the author is included.

349 citations


"Effect of lime and fly ash on swell..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Apart from these techniques, stabilisation of expansive soils with various additives including lime, cement, calcium chloride and fly ash (Shankar and Maruthi 1989, Desai and Oza 1997, Phanikumar and Nagareddayya 2001, Cokca 2001) has also met with considerable success....

    [...]