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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of N/Ga flux ratio on transport behavior of Pt/GaN Schottky diodes

16 Sep 2011-Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 110, Iss: 6, pp 064502
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of N/Ga flux ratio on structural, morphological, and optical properties of GaN films on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) was studied.
Abstract: GaN films were grown on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The effect of N/Ga flux ratio on structural, morphological, and optical properties was studied. The dislocation density found to increase with increasing the N/Ga ratio. The surface morphology of the films as seen by scanning electron microscopy shows pits on the surface and found that the pit density on the surface increases with N/Ga ratio. The room temperature photoluminescence study reveals the shift in band-edge emission toward the lower energy with increase in N/Ga ratio. This is believed to arise from the reduction in compressive stress in the films as is evidenced by room temperature Raman study. The transport studied on the Pt/GaN Schottky diodes showed a significant increase in leakage current with an increase in N/Ga ratio and was found to be caused by the increase in pit density as well as increase in dislocation density in the GaN films.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics, where the barrier height and the ideally factor were found to be temperature dependent.
Abstract: We have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics. The barrier height (φb) and the ideally factor (η) estimated using thermionic emission model were found to be temperature dependent. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(Js/T2) versus 1/kT showed two temperature regions (region-I: 400–500 K and region-II: 200–350 K) and it provides Richardson constants (A∗) which are much lower than the theoretical value of GaN. The observed variation in the barrier height and the presence of two temperature regions were attributed to spatial barrier inhomogeneities at the heterojunction interface and was explained by assuming a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with mean barrier height values 1.61 and 1.21 eV with standard deviation (σs2) of 0.044 and 0.022 V, respectively. The modified Richardson plot of ln(Js/T2) − (q2σs2/2k2T2) versus 1/kT for two temperature regions gave mean barrier height v...

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a-plane GaN thin films are grown on r-plane sapphire using three different growth approaches by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) analysis is performed during and after the growth to monitor the growth mode.
Abstract: Present work focuses on improving the quality of nonpolar a-plane GaN thin films by introducing unconventional new efficient growth conditions without compromising their UV photodetection properties. These epitaxial thin films are grown on r-plane sapphire using three different growth approaches by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) analysis is performed during and after the growth to monitor the growth mode, and it is found that the films assumed desired 2D mode during the growth. The crystalline quality and the phase purity of the films are assessed with the help of high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. All the films are found to contain compressive stress, which indicate that all the films are strained and epitaxial. The temporal response is carried out in all the three batches, which is very stable. Sensitivity, responsivity, transit time, and gain values are estimated. Highest responsivity and the corresponding gain are found to be around 25 AW(-1), 86.47 at 1 V bias, respectively. These are the highest reported values so far for a-plane GaN at such low voltages.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the growth of pure gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on different silicon (Si) substrates by thermal vapor deposition via the direct reaction of gallium with volatile ammonia solution is reported.
Abstract: We report on the growth of highly pure and single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on different silicon (Si) substrates by thermal vapor deposition via the direct reaction of gallium with volatile ammonia solution. The structural and optical characteristics of the as-grown GaN/Si nanostructured heterojunctions are investigated. The morphology of the formed GaN nanostructures is strongly dependent on the crystal orientation of the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis reveal that the fabricated GaN nanostructures have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The photoluminescence spectra of all GaN nanostructures exhibit a strong near-band-edge ultraviolet (UV) emission peak (365–372 nm), which illustrates their potential in optoelectronic applications. The current–voltage measurements under dark, visible, and UV illumination conditions are performed to study the light sensing ability of the fabricated heterojunctions. Under reverse bias (5 V), the photocurrent of the GaN/n-Si (111) photodetector was comparably much higher than that of the GaN/n-Si (100) photodetector, probably due to the better quality of the GaN formed on Si (111) compared with those formed on Si (100), resulting in a higher photoresponse. The calculated rectification ratio revealed that the sensitivity of the GaN/n-Si (111) photodiode is higher than that of the GaN/n-Si (100), indicating the importance of the interface architecture. The fabricated photodiodes showed photoresponse toward UV and visible wavelengths, demonstrating shorter rise and decay times compared with other materials used to fabricate UV and visible light photodetectors. The prototype device shows a simple method for GaN synthesis and demonstrates the possibility of constructing nanoscale photodetectors for nano-optics applications.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a single-phase InGaN epitaxial films were grown on GaN template by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and the composition of indium incorporation was found to be 23%.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a detailed report on the modulation in the electrical properties of VO2/Si heterostructures by application of an external electrical field across VO2 thin films.
Abstract: Smart multifunctional materials such as vanadium dioxide (VO2), which exhibit a reversible semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT), provide a new route toward engineering high speed switchable devices. Here, we present a detailed report on the modulation in the electrical properties of VO2/Si heterostructures by application of an external electrical field across VO2 thin films. Single-phase VO2 thin films have been deposited on an Si(111) substrate using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The electrical transport behavior across the VO2/Si heterostructure has been studied in the temperature range of 35–105 °C, and a reversible SMT can be seen at 68 and 63 °C for heating and cooling cycles, respectively. The temperature-dependent resistance of the device shows a hysteresis loop around the transition temperature of the VO2 thin film. In addition, the device shows a significant change in junction current when an external bias is applied on the VO2 thin film, and this phenomenon has been utilized to study the switching behavior of the device. Such behavior is due to the change in interfacial barrier height because of the bias dependent tilting of electronic energy bands of the VO2 thin film. Our results offer novel opportunities to externally control the electrical transport of vertical heterostructures and can be beneficial for extending the notion of electrical field modulation in electrical switches and sensors.

6 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare the performance of SiC, GaN, and ZnSe for high-temperature electronics and short-wavelength optical applications and conclude that SiC is the leading contender for high temperature and high power applications if ohmic contacts and interface state densities can be further improved.
Abstract: In the past several years, research in each of the wide‐band‐gap semiconductors, SiC, GaN, and ZnSe, has led to major advances which now make them viable for device applications. The merits of each contender for high‐temperature electronics and short‐wavelength optical applications are compared. The outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiC and GaN should enable them to operate at high temperatures and in hostile environments, and also make them attractive for high‐power operation. The present advanced stage of development of SiC substrates and metal‐oxide‐semiconductor technology makes SiC the leading contender for high‐temperature and high‐power applications if ohmic contacts and interface‐state densities can be further improved. GaN, despite fundamentally superior electronic properties and better ohmic contact resistances, must overcome the lack of an ideal substrate material and a relatively advanced SiC infrastructure in order to compete in electronics applications. Prototype transistors have been fabricated from both SiC and GaN, and the microwave characteristics and high‐temperature performance of SiC transistors have been studied. For optical emitters and detectors, ZnSe, SiC, and GaN all have demonstrated operation in the green, blue, or ultraviolet (UV) spectra. Blue SiC light‐emitting diodes (LEDs) have been on the market for several years, joined recently by UV and blue GaN‐based LEDs. These products should find wide use in full color display and other technologies. Promising prototype UV photodetectors have been fabricated from both SiC and GaN. In laser development, ZnSe leads the way with more sophisticated designs having further improved performance being rapidly demonstrated. If the low damage threshold of ZnSe continues to limit practical laser applications, GaN appears poised to become the semiconductor of choice for short‐wavelength lasers in optical memory and other applications. For further development of these materials to be realized, doping densities (especially p type) and ohmic contact technologies have to be improved. Economies of scale need to be realized through the development of larger SiC substrates. Improved substrate materials, ideally GaN itself, need to be aggressively pursued to further develop the GaN‐based material system and enable the fabrication of lasers. ZnSe material quality is already outstanding and now researchers must focus their attention on addressing the short lifetimes of ZnSe‐based lasers to determine whether the material is sufficiently durable for practical laser applications. The problems related to these three wide‐band‐gap semiconductor systems have moved away from materials science toward the device arena, where their technological development can rapidly be brought to maturity.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical models of Schottky-barrier height formation are reviewed in this paper, with a particular emphasis on the examination of how these models agree with general physical principles, and new concepts on the relationship between interface dipole and chemical bond formation are analyzed, and shown to offer a coherent explanation of a wide range of experimental data.
Abstract: Theoretical models of Schottky-barrier height formation are reviewed. A particular emphasis is placed on the examination of how these models agree with general physical principles. New concepts on the relationship between interface dipole and chemical bond formation are analyzed, and shown to offer a coherent explanation of a wide range of experimental data.

1,064 citations

MonographDOI
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