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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of nacl- salinity on metabolism of proline in salt- sensitive and salt- resistant cultivars of rice

01 Jan 1992-Biologia Plantarum (Springer Netherlands)-Vol. 34, Iss: 1, pp 159-162
TL;DR: High activities of Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase may be regarded as a biological marker for screening the sensitive and resistant cultivars of rice seed under NaCl-salinity.
Abstract: The effect of NaCl at sublethal concentration was observed on germinating seeds of salt-sensitive and -resistant rice cultivars with respect to the level of proline regulatory enzymes and the growth of seedlings on different days of early germination period. The two enzymes of proline biosynthesis and catabolism, Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and L-proline dehydrogenase, were taken into consideration to observe the effects of 100 mM NaCl on their activities in both rice cultivars. The activity of Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in salt-resistant cultivar was increased twice after 5 d in 100 mM NaCl. Simultaneously, the activity of L-proline dehydrogenase was decreased significantly. High activities of Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase may be regarded as a biological marker for screening the sensitive and resistant cultivars of rice seed under NaCl-salinity.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that proline accumulation is a symptom of salt-stress injury in rice and that its accumulation in salt-sensitive plants results from an increase in OAT activity and a increase in the endogenous pool of its precursor glutamate.
Abstract: Salt-stress effects on osmotic adjustment, ion and proline concentrations as well as proline metabolizing enzyme activities were studied in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance: I Kong Pao (IKP; salt-sensitive) and Nona Bokra (salt-resistant), The salt-sensitive cultivar exposed to 50 and 100 mM NaCl in nutritive solution for 3 and 10 days accumulated higher levels of sodium land proline than the salt-resistant cultivar and displayed lower levels of osmotic adjustment. Proline accumulation was not related to proteolysis and could not be explained by stress-induced modifications in Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR; EC 1.5.1.2) or proline dehydrogenase (PDN; EC 1.5.1.2) activities recorded in vitro. The extracted ornithine delta-aminotransferase (OAT;: EC 2.6.1.13) activity was increased by salt stress in the salt-sensitive cultivar only. In both genotypes, salt stress induced an increase in the aminating activity of root glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) while deaminating activity was reduced in the leaves of the salt-sensitive cultivar, The total extracted glutamine synthetase activity (CS; EC 6.3.1.2) was reduced in response to salinity but NaCl had contrasting effects on GS1 and GS2 isoforms in salt-sensitive IKP, Salinity increased the activity of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT; EC 1.4.7.1) extracted from leaves of both genotypes and increased the activity of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) in the salt-sensitive cultivar, It is suggested that proline accumulation is a symptom of salt-stress injury in rice and that its accumulation in salt-sensitive plants results from an increase in OAT activity and an increase in the endogenous pool of its precursor glutamate. The physiological significance of the recorded changes are analyzed in relation to the functions of these enzymes in plant metabolism.

440 citations

BookDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the toxic symptoms of Cd in plants (i.e. growth retardation, alterations of photosynthesis, stomatal movement, enzymatic activities, water relations, interferences with mineral uptake, protein metabolism, membrane functioning, etc.) but also includes the mechanisms of cadmium uptake, translocation and deposition.
Abstract: Of all the non-essential heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) is perhaps the metal which has attracted the most attention in soil science and plant nutrition due to its potential toxicity to humans, and also its relative mobility in the soil-plant system. This review summarizes the toxic symptoms of Cd in plants (i.e. growth retardation, alterations of photosynthesis, stomatal movement, enzymatic activities, water relations, interferences with mineral uptake, protein metabolism, membrane functioning, etc.) but also includes the mechanisms of cadmium uptake, translocation and deposition. Moreover, it also throws light on chelation, including identification of Cd ligands present in cytosol and vascular tissue. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress is also considered as one of the most widely studied topics in this review.

241 citations


Cites background from "Effect of nacl- salinity on metabol..."

  • ...metals that induce proline accumulation, Cd was the strongest inducer (Saradhi and Saradhi, 1981) in rice (Roy et al., 1992), Brassica napus callus (Chandner and Thorpe, 1987), Armeria moritima...

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  • ...Among the four tested heavy metals that induce proline accumulation, Cd was the strongest inducer (Saradhi and Saradhi, 1981) in rice (Roy et al., 1992), Brassica napus callus (Chandner and Thorpe, 1987), Armeria moritima (Farago, 1981), and sunflower (Kastori et al., 1992) and Brassica juncea…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Apr 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role.
Abstract: Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

149 citations


Cites background from "Effect of nacl- salinity on metabol..."

  • ...4), which had been illustrated previously in rice [42]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of priming-induced modulation of activities of particular genes and enzymes of proline turnover, and its relationship with higher content of hydrogen peroxide, in improving seed germination under salinity stress is shown for the first time.

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that proline accumulation could be used as a biochemical marker for increased salt tolerance in potato and close relationship between the growth and survival of plantlets with proline content.

112 citations

References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.

289,852 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a simple colorimetric determination of proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material was presented.
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

15,328 citations


"Effect of nacl- salinity on metabol..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...At different stages of germination a free proline level was measured according to Bates et al. (1973). Growth of roots and shoots was greater in 'CSR-4' than in 'Rama' under salinity (Table l)....

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