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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize ( Zea mays L.) and sorghum Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench)

31 Aug 2007-African Journal of Biotechnology (Academic Journals (Kenya))-Vol. 6, Iss: 16, pp 1869-1873

TL;DR: Drought tolerance measured as percentage chlorophyll stability index (CSI%) was highest under control plots in both crops and in both maize and sorghum, the lowest chlorophyLL content occurred in control plot.

AbstractThe effects of amending soil with organic (poultry manure) and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) was carried out at the Teaching and Research (T&R) Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, (O.A.U.) Ile - Ife, Nigeria. The experiment was a randomised complete block design (RCBD), laid out in a split-plot arrangement in the second cropping season of year 2001 and 2002. There were four sources of fertilizer for soil amendment: inorganic fertilizer (IF), mixture of inorganic fertilizer and poultry manure (IFPM), poultry manure (PM) and control (C) (no fertilizer or manure treatment). Each fertilizer source supplied 54 kg N plus 25 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O5/ha. There were significant variability and diversity observed on the two crops due to treatments. Grain yield was highest in sorghum (3.55 kg/ha) and maize (2.89 kg/ha) under IFPM followed by IF treatment for maize (2.33 kg/ha) and PM treatment for sorghum ((3.37 kg/ha). Sorghum and maize had the highest dry matter of 72.3 g/plant and 71.0 g/plant under IFPM at harvest. The effects of PM on the dry matter of sorghum (68.1 g/plant) and maize (61.7 g/plant) were not significantly different (p = 0.05) from that of IF (sorghum 66.1 g/plant, maize 58.7 g/plant). Sorghum also had the highest leaf area (LA) (2752.9 cm2/plant) and total chlorophyll content of 3.28 mg/g under PM while maize on the other hand had the highest LA (1969.5 cm2/plant) and total chlorophyll content of 2.63 mg/g under IFPM. In both maize and sorghum, the lowest chlorophyll content occurred in control plot. Drought tolerance measured as percentage chlorophyll stability index (CSI%) was highest under control plots in both crops.

Topics: Sorghum (54%), Fertilizer (52%), Manure (52%), Chlorophyll (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
30 Sep 2013
TL;DR: It is concluded that M. oleifera leaf and twig extracts can be recommended to be used effectively by farmers as a bio-organic fertilizer for various crops due to its high productivity, high nutritive value, antioxidant effect, easy preparation, low cost and environmentally friendly nature.
Abstract: Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses and high nutritional value. Accordingly, rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plants were foliar sprayed with the aqueous extracts of leaves and twigs of M. oleifera at rates of 1, 2 and 3%. Among these concentrations, fertilization of rocket plants with 2% leaf and 3% twig extracts potentially increased all measured growth criteria (plant height, fresh and dry herb weight), photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, the amounts of each of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, total sugars, total protein, phenols, ascorbic acid, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe as well as growth promoting hormones (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins). Besides, bio-organic manuring with both kinds of Moringa extracts at all concentrations applied negatively reduced the levels of each of lipid peroxidation and abscisic acid as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). Thus, it is concluded that M. oleifera leaf and twig extracts can be recommended to be used effectively by farmers as a bio-organic fertilizer for various crops due to its high productivity, high nutritive value, antioxidant effect, easy preparation, low cost and environmentally friendly nature. Key words: Moringa oleifera, growth, gas exchange, antioxidants, metabolites, phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments.

102 citations


Cites methods from "Effect of organic and inorganic fer..."

  • ...Corroborative data were obtained using different types of organic fertilizers as compost, vermincompost, animal manure and seaweeds (Amujoyegbe et al., 2007; Noori et al., 2010; Abdalla and El-Khoshiban, 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most recent literature about the responses of sorghum to the most important abiotic stresses: nutrient deficiency, aluminium stress, drought, high salinity, waterlogging or temperature stress the plants have to cope with during cultivation are summarized.
Abstract: Sorghum [(Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench] is a highly productive crop plant, which can be used for alternative energy resource, human food, livestock feed or industrial purposes. The biomass of sorghum can be utilized as solid fuel via thermochemical routes or as a carbohydrate substrate via fermentation processes. The plant has a great adaptation potential to drought, high salinity and high temperature, which are important characteristics of genotypes growing in extreme environments. However, the climate change in the 21st century may bring about new challenges in the cultivated areas. In this review, we summarize the most recent literature about the responses of sorghum to the most important abiotic stresses: nutrient deficiency, aluminium stress, drought, high salinity, waterlogging or temperature stress the plants have to cope with during cultivation. The advanced molecular and system biological tools provide new opportunities for breeders to select stress-tolerant and high-yielding cultivars.

87 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2013-Geoderma
Abstract: Efficient N fertilization is considered one of the most important management strategies for sustaining or increasing crop yield and quality, and improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). A 2-yr (2008–2009) field experiment with rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) was conducted in the hilly region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan to evaluate the effect of time and source of N fertilizer application on the growth, yield, N-uptake and NUE of maize. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of 2 years, two methods/timings and four N sources including a control, arranged in a completely randomized block design replicated three times. Treatments included two application timings i.e. single application of N at planting and a split application i.e. 1/2 at sowing + 1/2 at V6 stage, and three N fertilizer sources i.e. urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and ammonium sulfate (AS), and a control. Results indicated that response of growth characteristics to N sources was in the order CAN > AS > urea. Similarly, straw and grain yields were highest in CAN followed by AS while urea exhibited the lowest. The relative increase in grain yield by CAN and AS was 11 and 10% in 2008 and 8 and 5% in 2009 over urea N. Split application of N increased grain yield between 4 to 9% in 2008 and 3% in 2009 over single N application. The amount of N taken up by plants depended upon the source of N fertilizer and was in the order urea > CAN > AS. The NUE ranged between 31 to 61% in 2008 and 40 to 67% in 2009 and urea exhibited the highest NUE. Split application of N increased NUE by 23 and 21% over single N application. Results of this study indicated that yield and N balance of maize was significantly affected by N sources and application timing. However, response of both traits to N sources was distinctive. Further studies (long term basis) are suggested to explore the effects of N sources on maize productivity particularly yield and N balance relationship.

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Application of organic amendments to soil is an important management strategy for enhancing the restoration of degraded soils and providing better soil conditions to below-ground soil microbial composition and above-ground plant community development. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of organic amendments (poultry manure – PM; white clover residues – WCR), a mineral N fertilizer (urea N – UN), or mixtures of these fertilizers on microbial activity and nitrogen (N) mineralization through both soil analysis (laboratory incubation) and aboveground maize ( Zea mays L.) growth (pot experiment). In the incubation experiment, soil was amended with PM, WCR, PM + WCR, UN, UN + PM, UN + WCR, and UN + PM + WCR at the rate equivalent to 200 mg N kg −1 soil. Pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse using same amendments to examine the response of maize seedlings to these treatments. Organic amendments and UN applied alone or in mixtures increased soil microbial biomass compared to the control. Among N amendments, the highest evaluation of CO 2 –C (47.7 mg kg −1 day −1 ), microbial biomass C (434 mg kg −1 ) and microbial biomass N (86 mg kg −1 ) were recorded in the UN + PM + WCR while the lowest values were recorded in UN. It is estimated that 9–18% of the applied N had been assimilated into microbial N pool after 105 days. Mineralization of N was higher in the fertilized soil and ranged between 85 and 192 mg N kg −1 compared with 46 mg N kg −1 in the control. The net cumulative N mineralized (NCNM) ranged between 43 and 169 mg kg −1 while the net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) ranged between 16 and 69%. Combined application of UN + PM + WCR exhibited the highest NCNM and NCNN. On average, percentage conversion of added N into NO 3 − –N was: 21% from organic sources, 40% from UN and 52% from UN + organic sources. The apparent recovery of added N (ANR) from PM, WCR and PM + WCR was 20, 24 and 45%, respectively, while UN, UN + PM, UN + WCR and UN + PM + WCR exhibited 50, 57, 64, and 73% ANR, respectively. Results obtained from the pot experiment (on maize) were consistent with the total mineral N (TMN) released from different amendments and highly significant correlations existed between TMN and plant dry matter yield ( r 2 = 0.92) and TMN and N uptake of plants ( r 2 = 0.89). The present study demonstrates the existence of substantial amount of N reserve present in organic substrates, which can be transformed into inorganic N pool and can be taken into account as potential sources in the management of the nutrient poor soils and crop growth.

47 citations



References
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Book
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TL;DR: Observations probability sampling from a normal distribution comparisons involving two sample means principles of experimental design analysis of variance.
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"Effect of organic and inorganic fer..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (Steel and Torrie, 1980; Gomez and Gomez, 1984)....

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TL;DR: This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted in farmers' fields in the Czech Republic over a period of three years to investigate the effects of agricultural pesticides on animal welfare and human health.
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"Effect of organic and inorganic fer..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The soil is a low base status forest soil derived from coarse-grained gneiss and granite parent rocks and is classified as an ultisol (Harpstead, 1973). The field experiments were carried out during the late cropping seasons (August – November) of years 2001 and 2002. The test crops were maize (Zea mays L. var. DMR-SR-Y) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench var. IRAT204). The maize and the sorghum seeds were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria and the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badegry, Nigeria respectively The field, which was under fallow for one year was ploughed and harrowed before laying out the plots. The plots were laid out in a split-plot design. The main plot size was 26.25 x 10.75 m while the sub-plot size was 4.5 x 4.0 m. The main plots included (1) control, (2) poultry manure (PM), (3) inorganic fertilizer (IF), and (4) mixture of poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer (IFPM). The two sub-plots consisted of the two crop types planted at 0.75 x 0.5 m to give a population of 53,333 plants per hectare. Each of the sub-plots except the control received 54 kg N/ha plus 25 kg/ha each of P2O5 and K2O5 in form of inorganic or organic fertilizer. Each experiment was replicated three times. The poultry manure which contained 0.54% N, 0.16% P and 0.09% K, was obtained from the Poultry Unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Teaching and Research Farm. It was applied at the rate of 5.56 t/ha in the sole PM plots in each year. Half this rate (2.78 t/ha) was mixed with inorganic fertilizer, which was equivalent to 50% of the IF, applied in the sole plot as the IFPM treatment. The N, P and K components of each of PM and IFPM were thus calculated to be equivalent to 56 kg N plus 25 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O5 /ha. 20:10:10 N.P.K. fertilizer supplied the same amounts of N, P and K. The treatments were incorporated manually with hoe into the 5 cm depth of soil after broadcasting. Planting of seeds was carried out 24h after incorporation of the treatments (Uhlen and Tveitnes, 1995). Weeds were controlled using a formulated mixture of Atrazine and Metalachlor (Premextra 500 FW) applied pre-emergence immediately after planting at the rate of 51.0 kg a.i./ha and later supplemented with one manual weeding. The seeds of the maize and sorghum were treated with Apron plus 50DS before planting in order to suppress insect attack and fungi transmitted diseases. Data on grain yield at harvest were obtained from plants in the net rows. Measurements of plant height (PLH), leaf area (LA) above ground dry matter (DM) and chlorophyll content (CHL.) were taken at 30 days after-planting (DAP) (time of vigorous vegetative growth); 50 DAP (time of silking in maize), and 75 DAP and the last sampling was at maturity. The leaf area (LA) was recorded using a portable leaf area meter (LI-COR, MODEL LI-2000C) Leaf samples from crops in the net rows were harvested for chlorophyll content estimation following the methods of Witham et al. (1971) and Bansal et al....

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  • ...Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (Steel and Torrie, 1980; Gomez and Gomez, 1984)....

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Journal ArticleDOI

126 citations


"Effect of organic and inorganic fer..." refers background in this paper

  • ...According to Possingharm (1980) and Newcomb (1999) the addition of N and Mg to porphyrin rings of chlorophyll molecules caused temporary instability of the molecules....

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  • ...The higher CSI of sorghum than maize observed in this study could partly explain by the higher drought resistance tolerant of sorghum as reported by other workers (Possingharm, 1980; Newcomb, 1999)....

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Journal ArticleDOI

74 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Kaloyereas (1958) and Sivasubramaniawn (1992) related the drought resistance of plants to the chlorophyll stability index that has been employed to determine the thermostability of chlorophyll....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study presents data on soil profile samples from eleven sites in Nigeria, widely distributed from the high rainfall coastal area of sedimentary parent material to the dry northern area where aeolian deposits from the Sahara Desert have been a major soil-forming factor. Weatherable minerals are generally present in the soils formed from crystalline rocks and most of these soils are classified as Alfisols. On the sedimentary rocks and on the ultrabasic crystalline rocks Oxisols have formed. On aeolian parent materials from the Sahara and on the Pleistocene sediments the soils are classified as Inceptosols.

52 citations


"Effect of organic and inorganic fer..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The soil is a low base status forest soil derived from coarse-grained gneiss and granite parent rocks and is classified as an ultisol (Harpstead, 1973)....

    [...]