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Journal Article

Effect of organic contaminants on seed germination of Lolium multiflorum in soil

01 Jan 2009-Biology and medicine (OMICS International)-Vol. 2009, Iss: 1, pp 28-34

TL;DR: Ability of ryegrass seeds to survive and tolerate the contaminants for phytoremediation studies is assessed and the level of seed germination was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos in the soil.

AbstractThe seed germination trials have relevance in selection of the plants for their prospective use in phytoremediation. The effect of organic contaminants; anthracene and chlorpyrifos on the seed germination of Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass) has been investigated. The germination of ryegrass seeds was evaluated in the separately spiked soil with organic compounds at the concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg while un-spiked soil taken as control. There was no inhibitory effect of anthracene observed on germination as compared to the control whereas significant reduction and delay in seed germination was observed at the higher chlorpyrifos concentrations of 75 and 100 mg/kg. The results show the pesticide (chlorpyrifos) toxicity was not caused to the ryegrass seeds up to the concentration of 50 mg/kg. The level of seed germination was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos in the soil. The findings of this study assessed ability of ryegrass seeds to survive and tolerate the contaminants for phytoremediation studies.

Topics: Lolium multiflorum (62%), Germination (59%), Phytoremediation (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MN and comet assays were indicated to be sensitive and rapid methods to detect mutagenicity and genotoxicity of CPF and other pollutants in fishes and significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish.
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in India. The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of CPF in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by CPF in freshwater fish Channapunctatus using micronucleus (MN) and comet assays was investigated. The LC(50) - 96 h of CPF was estimated for the fish in a semi-static system. On this basis of LC(50) value sublethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined. The DNA damage was measured in lymphocytes and gill cells as the percentage of DNA in comet tails and micronuclei were scored in erythrocytes of fishes exposed to above concentrations of CPF. In general, significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish. It was found that MN induction in the blood was highest on day 14 at 203.0 microg/l of CPF. The highest DNA damage was observed on day 5, followed by a gradual non-linear decline in the lymphocytes and gill cells. The study indicated MN and comet assays to be sensitive and rapid methods to detect mutagenicity and genotoxicity of CPF and other pollutants in fishes.

148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chlorpyrifos, previously shown to be resistant to enhanced degradation, has now been proved to undergo enhanced microbe-mediated decay and special emphasis is given to degradation methods such as ozonation, Fenton treatment, photodegradation, and advanced oxidation processes along with microbial degradation.
Abstract: The widespread use of pesticides in modern agriculture is of increasing concern due to environmental contamination and subsequent biodiversity loss. Chlorpyrifos is a toxic organophosphate pesticide. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos modify the soil microbial community structure and pose potential health risks to the other nontargets. Chlorpyrifos has been reported as the second most commonly detected pesticide in food and water. Extensive use of chlorpyrifos in agriculture and persistence in the environment have raised public concern and demand for safe technologies to overcome the pollution and toxicity problems. Here, we review pollution and toxicity issues associated with chlorpyrifos use and discuss strategies to solve pesticide contamination. Chlorpyrifos, previously shown to be resistant to enhanced degradation, has now been proved to undergo enhanced microbe-mediated decay. Here, special emphasis is given to degradation methods such as ozonation, Fenton treatment, photodegradation, and advanced oxidation processes along with microbial degradation. Finally, we focus on degradation process at enzyme and molecular levels which will enable us to elucidate the exact degradative pathway involved in biodegradation.

126 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show the effectiveness of inoculated exogenous bacteria to boost the remediation of CP contaminated sites and decrease levels of toxic pesticide residues in crop plants.
Abstract: The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to determine whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion and chlorpyrifos (CP) degradation and accumulation in different parts of the plant. Ryegrass was grown in soil spiked with CP and inoculated with a pesticide degrading bacterial strain Bacillus pumilus C2A1. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on CP degradation and plant biomass production, highest CP degradation (97%) was observed after 45 days of inoculation. Furthermore, inoculated strain efficiently colonized in the rhizosphere of inoculated plant and enhanced CP and its primary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) degradation. There was significantly less CP accumulation in roots and shoots of inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated exogenous bacteria to boost the remediation of CP contaminated sites and decrease levels of toxic pesticide residues in crop plants.

73 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It could be concluded that diesel oil significantly affected the germination, GSI and seedling growth of S. terebinthifolius Raddi seedlings, but the toxic effect decreased over the time.
Abstract: The effect of soil polluted by diesel oil on the germination of seeds and the growth of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi seedlings was analyzed at different times after contamination of the soil. The experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions, with four treatments and five repetitions. The four treatments included: soil contaminated 30 (T30), 90 (T90) or 180 (T180) days before planting as well as a non-polluted soil (T0) (control). Soil saturated to 50% of its maximum retention capacity (MRC) was contaminated with diesel oil at a rate of 92.4 mL per kg. The germination rate and germination speed index (GSI) were significantly affected only in T30. The development of the plants was affected significantly in all the treatments, with reductions of biomass and eophyll area. It could be concluded that diesel oil significantly affected the germination, GSI and seedling growth of S. terebinthifolius, but the toxic effect decreased over the time. Key words : Aroeira, biomass production, eophyll, residual contamination

50 citations


Cites background from "Effect of organic contaminants on s..."

  • ...…reported a lower rate of germination in soil contaminated by petroleum or its derivatives (Amakiri and Onofeghara, 1984; Adam and Duncan, 1999, 2002; Vavrek and Campbell, 2002; Méndez-Natera et al., 2004; Achuba, 2006; Smith et al., 2006, Sharifi et al., 2007; Korade and Fulekar, 2009; Ogbo, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...Many authors have reported a lower rate of germination in soil contaminated by petroleum or its derivatives (Amakiri and Onofeghara, 1984; Adam and Duncan, 1999, 2002; Vavrek and Campbell, 2002; Méndez-Natera et al., 2004; Achuba, 2006; Smith et al., 2006, Sharifi et al., 2007; Korade and Fulekar, 2009; Ogbo, 2009)....

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01 Jan 2012
Abstract: Prof. David E. Allan Prof. Robert E. Lutz II Melbourne, Australia Los Angeles, California James R. Atwood Paul McCarthy Washington, D.C. Chicago, Illinois Prof. Richard M. Buxbaum Ewell E. Murphy, Jr. Berkeley, California Houston, Texas Georges R. Delaume Richard C. Pugh Washington, D.C. New York, New York Sir Joseph Gold William Dill Rogers Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. John L. Gornall, Jr. Dean Jeswald W. Salacuse Atlanta, Georgia Medford, Massachusetts Dr. Christine Gray Prof. Kenneth R. Simmonds Oxford, England London, England Prof. Robert E. Hudec Prof. Willem C. Vis Minneapolis, Minnesota New York, New York Stanley B. Lubman San Francisco, California

37 citations


References
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Book
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Abstract: Set your standards with these standard methods. This is it: the most widely read publication in the water industry, your all-inclusive reference tool. This comprehensive reference covers all aspects of USEPA-approved water analysis methods. More than 400 methods - all detailed step-by-step; 8 vibrant, full-color pages of aquatic algae illustrations; Never-before-seen figures that will help users with toxicity testing and the identification of apparatus used in the methods; Over 300 superbly illustrated figures; A new analytical tool for a number of inorganic nonmetals; Improved coverage of data evaluation, sample preservation, and reagant water; And much more!

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Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) consist of three or more fused benzene rings in linear, angular, or cluster arrangements. Substitution of carbon in the benzene ring with nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, or other elements creates heterocyclic aromatic compounds (Blumer 1976). Excluding diphenyl types there are some 70 possible isomers of 4-6 fused rings. Additionally these isomers may be substituted by a variety of substituents (Erskine and Whitehead 1975). The aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles, unsubstituted and substituted, are referred to alternatively as polynuclear aromatics (PNAs), polycyclic aromatic compounds (PCAs), and polycyclic organic matter (POM) (NAS 1972, U.S. EPA 1975 b).

456 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data point to the existence, next to already known routes for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, of alternative pathways that might be due to the presence of different dioxygenases or to a relaxed specificity of the same dIOxygenase for initial attack on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Abstract: Cultures of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 were dosed with anthracene or phenanthrene and after 14 days of incubation had degraded 92 and 90% of the added anthracene and phenanthrene, respectively. The metabolites were extracted and identified by UV-visible light absorption, high-pressure liquid chromatography retention times, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and comparison to authentic compounds and literature data. Neutral-pH ethyl acetate extracts from anthracene-incubated cells showed four metabolites, identified ascis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene, 6,7-benzocoumarin, 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthracene, and 9,10-anthraquinone. A novel anthracene ring fission product was isolated from acidified culture media and was identified as 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid. 6,7-Benzocoumarin was also found in that extract. When Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 was grown in the presence of phenanthrene, three neutral metabolites were identified as cis- andtrans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene andcis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene. Phenanthrene ring fission products, isolated from acid extracts, were identified as 2,2′-diphenic acid, 1-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and phthalic acid. The data point to the existence, next to already known routes for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, of alternative pathways that might be due to the presence of different dioxygenases or to a relaxed specificity of the same dioxygenase for initial attack on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

287 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, a common protocol is proposed in which the contaminant dissolved in acetone is added to 25% of the soil sample, followed by evaporation of the solvent and mixing with the remaining 75% ofThe soil sample.
Abstract: We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either the whole soil sample or 25% of the soil volume, which was subsequently mixed with 75% untreated soil. For dichloromethane, we included a third protocol, which involved application to 80% of the soil volume with or without phenanthrene and introduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens VKI171 SJ132 genetically tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils, the protozoan population was able to recover to the initial level within 2 weeks, in terms of numbers of protozoa; protozoan diversity, however, remained low. In soil spiked with dichloromethane with or without phenanthrene, the introduced P. fluorescens VKI171 SJ132 was able to grow to a density 1,000-fold higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant dissolved in acetone is added to 25% of the soil sample, followed by evaporation of the solvent and mixing with the remaining 75% of the soil sample.

226 citations


"Effect of organic contaminants on s..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Soil was spiked with anthracene and chlorpyrifos separately according to the procedure used by Brinch et al. (2002) to obtain final concentrations of both the organic contaminants to 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/ kg....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied, and apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil.
Abstract: The relevance of germination trials for screening plants that may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated land was evaluated. The germination and subsequent growth of 7 grass and legume species were evaluated in soil spiked with a pure PAH mixture or coal tar and soil from a former coking plant heavily contaminated with aged PAHs. None of these treatments adversely affected germination of the plants. However, apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil. In the coal tar spiked soil 4 out of the 7 species showed reduced growth, as did 3 out of the 7 in the soil spiked with a mixture of 7 PAHs. Therefore, germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied.

196 citations