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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of Patients’ Attitude on their Satisfaction and Switching Intention in Generic Medicine Industry: An Empirical Analysis in India

TL;DR: This paper is an early effort to investigate patients' attitudes and their effect on their level of satisfaction and switching intention in the pharmaceutical industry (i.e., generic and brand choices), and results show patient satisfaction and switched intentions were positively affected by their attitude.
Abstract: People are now more health-conscious to live safe and hazard-free lives in modern society. If people are affected by any disease, choosing doctor services and medicines involves many complex decisions. Generic drugs seem to be a significant and well-known source of competition for labelled drugs, but they can likewise be a major idea for lowering costs in the pharmaceutical industry. This might result in savings for either the government or the patients. Given this perspective, it is critical to understand a patient's preferences amongst both drug kinds (brand and generics) as well as to discover what are the attitudes of patients on those and whether this impacts the actual behaviour and purchases in future because of their satisfaction levels. In this context, this paper is an early effort to investigate patients' attitudes and their effect on their level of satisfaction and switching intention in the pharmaceutical industry (i.e., generic and brand choices). Responses were collected from 537 patients residing in different cities of Odisha state of India by survey method and analysis. In line with the study's results, patient satisfaction and switching intentions were positively affected by their attitude. In addition to patient pleasure, introducing generic drugs creates competition, which is necessary for originator businesses to innovate. Because of their lower costs and the competition, they foster, generic medications contribute to constructing a more sustainable healthcare system. *(The paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Embracing Change & Transformation Innovation and Creativity 26-28 May 2022)
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book deals with probability distributions, discrete and continuous densities, distribution functions, bivariate distributions, means, variances, covariance, correlation, and some random process material.
Abstract: Chapter 3 deals with probability distributions, discrete and continuous densities, distribution functions, bivariate distributions, means, variances, covariance, correlation, and some random process material. Chapter 4 is a detailed study of the concept of utility including the psychological aspects, risk, attributes, rules for utilities, multidimensional utility, and normal form of analysis. Chapter 5 treats games and optimization, linear optimization, and mixed strategies. Entropy is the topic of Chapter 6 with sections devoted to entropy, disorder, information, Shannon’s theorem, demon’s roulette, Maxwell– Boltzmann distribution, Schrodinger’s nutshell, maximum entropy probability distributions, blackbodies, and Bose–Einstein distribution. Chapter 7 is standard statistical fare including transformations of random variables, characteristic functions, generating functions, and the classic limit theorems such as the central limit theorem and the laws of large numbers. Chapter 8 is about exchangeability and inference with sections on Bayesian techniques and classical inference. Partial exchangeability is also treated. Chapter 9 considers such things as order statistics, extreme value, intensity, hazard functions, and Poisson processes. Chapter 10 covers basic elements of risk and reliability, while Chapter 11 is devoted to curve fitting, regression, and Monte Carlo simulation. There is an ample number of exercises at the ends of the chapters with answers or comments on many of them in an appendix in the back of the book. Other appendices are on the common discrete and continuous distributions and mathematical aspects of integration.

19,893 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) as mentioned in this paper is a psychometrically sound and valid measure of the major dimensions of patients' satisfaction with medication.
Abstract: Background: The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a general measure of patients' satisfaction with medication, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). Methods: The content and format of 55 initial questions were based on a formal conceptual framework, an extensive literature review, and the input from three patient focus groups. Patient interviews were used to select the most relevant questions for further evaluation (n = 31). The psychometric performance of items and resulting TSQM scales were examined using eight diverse patient groups (arthritis, asthma, major depression, type I diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, migraine, and psoriasis) recruited from a national longitudinal panel study of chronic illness (n = 567). Participants were then randomized to complete the test items using one of two alternate scaling methods (Visual Analogue vs. Likert-type). Results: A factor analysis (principal component extraction with varimax rotation) of specific items revealed three factors (Eigenvalues > 1.7) explaining 75.6% of the total variance; namely Side effects (4 items, 28.4%, Cronbach's Alpha = .87), Effectiveness (3 items, 24.1%, Cronbach's Alpha = .85), and Convenience (3 items, 23.1%, Cronbach's Alpha = .87). A second factor analysis of more generally worded items yielded a Global Satisfaction scale (3 items, Eigenvalue = 2.3, 79.1%, Cronbach's Alpha = .85). The final four scales possessed good psychometric properties, with the Likert-type scaling method performing better than the VAS approach. Significant differences were found on the TSQM by the route of medication administration (oral, injectable, topical, inhalable), level of illness severity, and length of time on medication. Regression analyses using the TSQM scales accounted for 40–60% of variation in patients' ratings of their likelihood to persist with their current medication. Conclusion: The TSQM is a psychometrically sound and valid measure of the major dimensions of patients' satisfaction with medication. Preliminary evidence suggests that the TSQM may also be a good predictor of patients' medication adherence across different types of medication and patient populations.

741 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between needs, satisfaction and quality of life, identify gaps in the current knowledge base, and encourage future research in these areas are explored.
Abstract: With the publication of its 100th paper, the new open access Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes (HQLO), achieves a significant milestone. Launching a journal in this field was not just a challenge with respect to nomenclature, [1] but also provided a forum for disseminating research which emphasises the unique contributions as well as the inter-relationships among determinants of health, provision of care, and outcomes. So far, prominence (as measured by the number of scientific manuscripts accepted for publication) has been given mainly to the unique contributions of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Other determinants like health needs and satisfaction have sporadically been considered [2-7]. A few additional papers have focused on approaches to detect ill health. In this editorial we would like to explore the relationship between needs, satisfaction and quality of life, identify gaps in the current knowledge base, and encourage future research in these areas.

378 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patient satisfaction instruments should be subjected to the the same psychometrically rigorous standards and procedures as any other patient-reported outcome and should also be subject to the same regulatory standards as other customer-reported outcomes with respect to advertising and promotion.

234 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was found to be a reliable and valid measure to assess treatment satisfaction in naturalistic study designs, in which there is potential that the administration of the side effects domain of the TSQm would interfere with routine clinical care.
Abstract: The 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) Version 1.4 is a reliable and valid instrument to assess patients' satisfaction with medication, providing scores on four scales – side effects, effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction. In naturalistic studies, administering the TSQM with the side effects domain could provoke the physician to assess the presence or absence of adverse events in a way that is clinically atypical, carrying the potential to interfere with routine medical care. As a result, an abbreviated 9-item TSQM (TSQM-9), derived from the TSQM Version 1.4 but without the five items of the side effects domain was created. In this study, an interactive voice response system (IVRS)-administered TSQM-9 was psychometrically evaluated among patients taking antihypertensive medication. A total of 3,387 subjects were invited to participate in the study from an online panel who self-reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive medication. The subjects were asked to complete the IVRS-administered TSQM-9 at the start of the study, along with the modified Morisky scale, and again within 7 to 14 days. Standard psychometric analyses were conducted; including Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling, Spearman correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A total of 396 subjects completed all the study procedures. Approximately 50% subjects were male with a good racial/ethnic mix: 58.3% white, 18.9% black, 17.7% Hispanic and 5.1% either Asian or other. There was evidence of construct validity of the TSQM-9 based on the structural equation modeling findings of the observed data fitting the Decisional Balance Model of Treatment Satisfaction even without the side effects domain. TSQM-9 domains had high internal consistency as evident from Cronbach's alpha values of 0.84 and greater. TSQM-9 domains also demonstrated good test-retest reliability with high intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.70. As expected, the TSQM-9 domains were able to differentiate between individuals who were low, medium and high compliers of medication, with moderate to high effect sizes. There was evidence of convergent validity with significant correlations with the medication adherence scale. The IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was found to be a reliable and valid measure to assess treatment satisfaction in naturalistic study designs, in which there is potential that the administration of the side effects domain of the TSQM would interfere with routine clinical care.

202 citations