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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa on Development, Survival, Feeding, and Oviposition Preferences of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

01 Dec 2002-Environmental Entomology (Entomological Society of America)-Vol. 31, Iss: 6, pp 953-959
TL;DR: Alfalfa with high Se-treatment levels is resistant to S. exigua, and may serve as a population “sink,” where females oviposit and few offspring survive to reproduce.
Abstract: We examined the effect of irrigating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with selenium- contaminated water on the oviposition response, larval feeding preference, development and survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner, a generalist herbivore. Alfalfa was grown in sand cultures under three levels of sodium selenate irrigation: (1) control with no Se added; (2) a low rate of 0.0066 g sodium selenate/60 liters water; (3) and a high rate of 0.20 g sodium selenate/60 liters water. The low concentration treatment resulted in 2.88 0.52 g Se/g plant dry weight and did not affect percent survival to adult eclosion compared with the control at 1.26 0.11 g Se/g dry weight. The high rate generated 305.81 52.14g Se/g dry weight of alfalfa and signiÞcantly fewer insects survived compared with insects fed control alfalfa at 1.11 0.12 g Se/g dry weight. High Se levels, but not low levels, decreased the relative growth index for larvae. In two-choice bioassays (treated/control) neonate larvae did not discriminate between control and Se-treated plants at high or low levels. Fourth instars did not discriminate between plants with low Se levels and control plants, but preferred to consume plants with high, usually lethal concentrations of Se. Females preferred ovipositing on plants with low Se concentrations over control plants, but did not discriminate between plants with high Se levels and untreated controls. This indicates that although females and late instars may be able to differentiate between Se-treated and control alfalfa they do not avoid plants containing high con- centrations of Se. Thus, alfalfa with high Se-treatment levels is resistant to S. exigua, and may serve as a population "sink," where females oviposit and few offspring survive to reproduce.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Robert S. Boyd1
TL;DR: Investigation of this “joint effects hypothesis,” using Ni and secondary plant compounds in artificial insect diet, has demonstrated joint effects and suggests that defensive effects of elements in plants are more widespread than previously believed.
Abstract: Elemental hyperaccumulation may have several functions, including plant defense against natural enemies. A total of 34 studies, including 72 experimental tests, have been conducted to date. At least some tests have demonstrated defense by hyperaccumulated As, Cd, Ni, Se and Zn, but relatively few plant taxa and natural enemies have been investigated. Defense by hyperaccumulated Ni has been shown for most leaf/root chewing herbivores and pathogens tested (20 of 26 tests) but not for herbivores of other feeding modes (1 of 8 tests). Most tests (5 of 6) using Ni concentrations below accumulator levels found no defensive effect, and the single test using plants in the accumulator range also found no effect. For Zn, mixed results have been reported for both hyperaccumulator (3 of 6 tests showed defense) and accumulator levels (3 of 4 tests showed defense). These tests have focused exclusively on leaf chewing/scraping herbivores: no herbivores of other feeding modes, or pathogens, have been tested. Both hyperaccumulator and accumulator concentrations of Se generally have shown defensive effects (12 of 14 tests). Most (75%) of these positive results used plants with accumulator Se concentrations. The three tests of Cd showed defensive effects in two cases, one for hyperaccumulator and one for sub-accumulator Cd concentrations. Arsenic has been tested only once, and was found effective against a leaf-chewing herbivore at a concentration much less than the hyperaccumulator level. Defense studies have used a variety of experimental approaches, including choice and no-choice experiments as well as experiments that use artificial diet or growth media. Investigations of hyperaccumulation as a defense against natural enemies have led to two emerging questions. First, what is the minimum concentration of an element sufficient for defense? Evidence suggests that plants other than hyperaccumulators (such as accumulators) may be defended by elements against some natural enemies. Second, do the effects of an element combine with the effects of organic defensive compounds in plants to produce enhanced joint defensive effects? Recent investigation of this “joint effects hypothesis,” using Ni and secondary plant compounds in artificial insect diet, has demonstrated joint effects. Initial answers to both these questions suggest that defensive effects of elements in plants are more widespread than previously believed. These results also suggest an evolutionary pathway by which elemental hyperaccumulation may have evolved from accumulation. In this “defensive enhancement” scenario, defensive benefits of elevated levels of elements may have led to stepwise increases in element concentrations that further magnified these benefits. This series of steps could have led to increased accumulation, and ultimately hyperaccumulation, of elements by plants.

308 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa ..."

  • ...The studies in Table 2 contain a total of 38 taxa, but this is inXated by the large number (17) of Atriplex species used by Vickerman et al. (2002a)....

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  • ...Some of these studies (Vickerman and Trumble 1999; Trumble et al. 1998) complement separate studies investigating natural enemy responses in planta (Vickerman et al. 2002a, b: Table 2), thus together covering both Steps 1 and 2....

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  • ...Most of these tests used a single natural enemy and a single plant species, but some tests were more complex by involving suites of natural enemies or plants (e.g., Freeman et al. 2007; Noret et al. 2006; Vickerman et al. 2002a; Martens and Boyd 2002) and are simpliWed as shown for convenience....

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  • ...Most (13) of the 21 plant taxa used (counting the Atriplex species used by Vickerman et al. (2002a) as one taxon) are hyperaccumulators, but non-accumulator taxa (denoted by asterisks in Table 2) have been used by some studies (e.g., Boyd and Jhee 2005; Vickerman et al. 2002a, b)....

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  • ...Similar to the study by Hanson et al. (2003), Vickerman et al. (2002b) showed a preference of fourth instar Spodoptera exigua caterpillars for high Se (300 mg/kg) Medicago sativa plants....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Metal hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory resulting from deterrence and toxicity against a wide range of herbivores, and the combination of metals exacerbates toxicity through joint effects and enhances elemental defence.
Abstract: Summary Extraordinarily high leaf metal concentrations in metal hyperaccumulator plants may serve as an elemental defence against herbivores. However, mixed results have been reported and studies using comparative approaches are missing. We investigated the deterrent and toxic potential of metals employing the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on the preferences of three Brassicaceae specialists were tested in paired-choice experiments using differently treated plant material, including transgenic plants. In performance tests, we determined the toxicity and joint effects of both metals incorporated in an artificial diet on the survival of a generalist. Feeding by all specialists was significantly reduced by metal concentrations from above 1000 μg Zn g−1 DW and 18 μg Cd g−1 DW. By contrast, metals did not affect oviposition. Generalist survival decreased with increasing concentrations of individual metals, whereby the combination of Zn and Cd had an additive toxic effect even at the lowest applied concentrations of 100 μg Zn g−1 and 2 μg Cd g−1. Metal hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory resulting from deterrence and toxicity against a wide range of herbivores. The combination of metals exacerbates toxicity through joint effects and enhances elemental defence. Thus, metal hyperaccumulation is ecologically beneficial for plants.

107 citations


Cites background or result from "Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa ..."

  • ...…adults of certain dipterans or moths do not distinguish between nonmetal controls and high concentrations of metals that are toxic to the larvae (Vickerman et al., 2002; Trumble & Jensen, 2004), others found that some moths or fruit flies decreased oviposition at high metal concentrations…...

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  • ...By contrast, an oviposition preference for diets containing nontoxic elevated concentrations of trace metals has been observed in other herbivorous species, which may be explained by the importance of these elements in increasing the reproductive success and larval development (Vickerman et al., 2002; Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009)....

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  • ...While some studies showed that adults of certain dipterans or moths do not distinguish between nonmetal controls and high concentrations of metals that are toxic to the larvae (Vickerman et al., 2002; Trumble & Jensen, 2004), others found that some moths or fruit flies decreased oviposition at high metal concentrations (Freeman et al....

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  • ...…for diets containing nontoxic elevated concentrations of trace metals has been observed in other herbivorous species, which may be explained by the importance of these elements in increasing the reproductive success and larval development (Vickerman et al., 2002; Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that understanding how insect behavior is modified is necessary to assess the full scope and importance of metal and metalloid contamination, and that impaired behaviors result in a general reduction in population sizes and species diversity at contaminated sites.
Abstract: In toxicology studies, the use of death as an endpoint often fails to capture the effects a pollutant has on disruptions of ecosystem services by changing an animal’s behavior. Many toxicants can cause population extinctions of insect species at concentrations well below the EC25, EC50, or EC90 concentrations traditionally reported from short-term bioassays. A surprising number of species cannot detect metal and metalloid contamination, and do not always avoid food with significant metal concentrations. This frequently leads to modified ingestion, locomotor, and reproductive behaviors. For example, some species show a tendency to increase locomotor behaviors to escape from locations with elevated metal pollution, whereas other insects greatly decrease all movements unrelated to feeding. Still others exhibit behaviors resulting in increased susceptibility to predation, including a positive phototaxis causing immatures to move to exposed positions. For purposes of reproduction, the inability to avoid even moderately polluted sites when ovipositing can lead to egg loss and reduced fitness of offspring. Ultimately, impaired behaviors result in a general reduction in population sizes and species diversity at contaminated sites, the exceptions being those species tolerating contamination that become dominant. Regardless, ecosystem services, such as herbivory, detritus reduction, or food production for higher trophic levels, are disrupted. This review evaluates the effects of metal and metalloid pollution on insect behaviors in both terrestrial and aquatic systems reported in a diverse literature scattered across many scientific disciplines. Behaviors are grouped by ingestion, taxis, and oviposition. We conclude that understanding how insect behavior is modified is necessary to assess the full scope and importance of metal and metalloid contamination.

100 citations


Cites background from "Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa ..."

  • ...67H2O Drosophila melanogaster Negative Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009 Chromium Cr(VI) Megaselia scalaris No effect Trumble & Jensen, 2004 Copper CuSO4 Drosophila melanogaster Negative Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009 Iron FeSO4Æ7H2O Drosophila melanogaster Negative** Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009 Fe2(SO4)3ÆxH2O Drosophila melanogaster Negative** Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009 Selenium Se Plutella xylostella G88 Negative Freeman et al., 2006 Plutella xylostella Stanleyi No effect Freeman et al., 2006 Pieris rapae Negative Freeman et al., 2006 Na2SeO4 Spodoptera exigua Positive Vickerman et al., 2002b Spodoptera exigua No effect Vickerman et al., 2002a Zinc ZnCl2 Drosophila melanogaster Negative** Bahadorani & Hilliker, 2009 Only individual metals ⁄ metalloids are considered for behavioral outcomes because mixtures may lead to synergistic or antagonistic interactions otherwise unaccounted for in the behavioral response....

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  • ...Because all of the organisms collected in Table 2 (Continued) Metal Form Species Behavioral outcome Reference Iron FeSO4Æ7H2O Leptophlebia marginata Negative Gerhardt, 1992, 1994 Lead PbCl2 Leptophlebia marginata Negative Gerhardt, 1994 Mercury CH3HgCl Hexagenia rigida Positive Odin et al., 1995 C. Oviposition Cadmium CdCl2Æ2½H2O Chironomus riparius Negative Williams et al., 1987 Copper CuSO4Æ5H2O Chironomus riparius No effect Dornfeld et al., 2009 Mercury CH3ClHg Culex quinquefasciatus No effect Jensen et al., 2007 Selenium Na2SeO4 Culex quinquefasciatus No effect Jensen et al., 2007 Only individual metals ⁄ metalloids are considered for behavioral outcomes because mixtures may lead to synergistic or antagonistic interactions otherwise unaccounted for in the behavioral response....

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  • ...In this same study, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera spp. entered the drift column 10–15· and 3–5· Table 2 Summary of contaminants and the resultant behavioral outcome observed for insect species in aquatic habitats Metal Form Species Behavioral outcome Reference A. Ingestion behavior Copper CuSO4Æ5H2O Paratanytarsus parthenogeneticus Negative Hatakeyama & Yasuno, 1981 Cadmium Cd Hydropsyche slossonae Negative Tessier et al., 2000 CdCl2 Baetis tricaudatus Negative Irving et al., 2003; Riddell et al., 2005 Glyptotendipes pallens Negative Heinis et al., 1990 Kogotus nonus Negative Riddell et al., 2005 Selenium Na2SeO4 Culex quinquefasciatus Negative Jensen, 2006 Sympetrum corruptum Positive Jensen, 2006 Zinc ZnSO4Æ7H2O Hydropsyche betteni Negative Balch et al., 2000 B. Taxis behavior Aluminum AlCl3 Chironomidae Positive Bernard et al., 1990 Ephemeroptera Positive Bernard et al., 1990; Bernard, 1985 Plecoptera No effect Bernard et al., 1990; Bernard, 1985 Simulium spp. Negative Bernard, 1985 Simulium spp....

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  • ...When fed alfalfa with incorporated Se, firstinstar S. exigua were unable to distinguish between low and high (2.88 ± 0.52 vs. 305.81 ± 52.14 lg g)1 plant dry weight) concentrations of Se compared with controls (Vickerman et al., 2002b)....

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  • ...No effect Bernard et al., 1990 Trichoptera Positive Bernard et al., 1990 Al2(SO4)3 Baetis rhodani Positive Ormerod et al., 1987 Dicranota spp. Positive Ormerod et al., 1987 Dixa puberula Positive Ormerod et al., 1987 Elmis aenea No effect Ormerod et al., 1987 Ephemera danica Positive Herrmann & Andersson, 1986 Ephemerella ignita Positive Ormerod et al., 1987 Heptagenia fuscogrisea Positive Herrmann & Andersson, 1986 Heptagenia sulphurea Positive Herrmann & Andersson, 1986 Leuctra spp....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.
Abstract: Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

85 citations


Cites background from "Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa ..."

  • ...However, the soil-borne pollutant selenium (Se) adversely affects honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hladun et al. 2012, 2013a) as well as insect herbivores (Jensen et al. 2005; Trumble et al. 1998; Vickerman et al. 2002) in the laboratory....

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  • ...2012, 2013a) as well as insect herbivores (Jensen et al. 2005; Trumble et al. 1998; Vickerman et al. 2002) in the laboratory....

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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Apr 2012-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: This study has shown that bees fed selenate were less responsive to sucrose, which may lead to a reduction in incoming floral resources needed to support coworkers and larvae in the field, and reductions in population numbers may occur due to direct toxicity.
Abstract: We know very little about how soil-borne pollutants such as selenium (Se) can impact pollinators, even though Se has contaminated soils and plants in areas where insect pollination can be critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Se can be biotransferred throughout the food web, but few studies have examined its effects on the insects that feed on Se-accumulating plants, particularly pollinators. In laboratory bioassays, we used proboscis extension reflex (PER) and taste perception to determine if the presence of Se affected the gustatory response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers. Antennae and proboscises were stimulated with both organic (selenomethionine) and inorganic (selenate) forms of Se that commonly occur in Se-accumulating plants. Methionine was also tested. Each compound was dissolved in 1 M sucrose at 5 concentrations, with sucrose alone as a control. Antennal stimulation with selenomethionine and methionine reduced PER at higher concentrations. Selenate did not reduce gustatory behaviors. Two hours after being fed the treatments, bees were tested for sucrose response threshold. Bees fed selenate responded less to sucrose stimulation. Mortality was higher in bees chronically dosed with selenate compared with a single dose. Selenomethionine did not increase mortality except at the highest concentration. Methionine did not significantly impact survival. Our study has shown that bees fed selenate were less responsive to sucrose, which may lead to a reduction in incoming floral resources needed to support coworkers and larvae in the field. If honey bees forage on nectar containing Se (particularly selenate), reductions in population numbers may occur due to direct toxicity. Given that honey bees are willing to consume food resources containing Se and may not avoid Se compounds in the plant tissues on which they are foraging, they may suffer similar adverse effects as seen in other insect guilds.

81 citations


Cites background or methods from "Effect of Selenium-treated Alfalfa ..."

  • ...These forms of Se were chosen for comparison to toxicity assays using Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) [33], [30], [34]....

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  • ...Insect herbivores fed plant tissues containing high levels of metals, metalloids (such as Se), or other accumulated elements have shown reduced development and survival [32], and several studies have shown some insect species cannot detect detrimental levels of Se [33], [34]....

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  • ...Herbivores fed plant tissues containing high levels of metals, metalloids (such as Se), or other accumulated elements have shown reduced development and survival [32], and several studies have shown some insect species can not detect detrimental levels of Se [33], [34], but there are no studies to date examining the effects of Se-containing floral tissues on insect pollinator behaviors and survival....

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  • ...However, some insects cannot detect Se and will ingest it in laboratory feeding studies [47], [34]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1939
TL;DR: In this paper, the movement away from heavy reliance on polluting and toxic chemicals to an ecologically-based strategy of integrated pest management (IPM) has been emphasized, and the authors describe more than 600 important insect pests.
Abstract: This revised and updated fifth edition emphasizes the movement away from heavy reliance on polluting and toxic chemicals to an ecologically-based strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). The book describes more than 600 important insect pests. Features include a detailed life history of each insect; field keys for species identification; properties and uses of pesticides; microbial insecticides, attractants, and repellents; comprehensive coverage of biological control, chemical ecology, and host-plant resistance; and important references to scientific literature.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The bioavailability, including absorption, transport, metabolism, storage, and excretion, of the different forms of exogenous and endogenous Se are reviewed.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is at once an essential and toxic nutrient that occurs in both inorganic and organic forms. The biological functions of Se are mediated through at least 13 selenoproteins that contain Se as selenocysteine (Se-cyst). The endogenous synthesis of this amino acid from inorganic Se (selenide Se-2) and serine is encoded by a stop codon UGA in mRNA and involves a unique tRNA. Selenium can also substitute for sulfur in methionine to form an analog, selenomethionine (Se-meth), which is the main form of Se found in food. Animals cannot synthesize Se-meth or distinguish it from methionine and as a result it is nonspecifically incorporated into a wide range of Se-containing proteins. The metabolic fate of Se varies according to the form ingested and the overall Se status of an individual. This paper reviews the bioavailability, including absorption, transport, metabolism, storage, and excretion, of the different forms of exogenous and endogenous Se.

265 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Successively planting of canola and to a lesser extent kenaf and tall fescue, in Se-laden soil has the potential to reduce total soil Se.
Abstract: Concentrations of selenium (Se) in agricultural irrigation effluent increased stored soil Se to toxic levels in the wetland sediment at Kesterson Reservoir. Vegetation management (phytoremediation) may be a strategy to reduce these soil Se concentrations to nontoxic levels. Selenium in plant shoots and depletion of soil Se removal by selected plant species were evaluated over a l-yr period under greenhouse conditions. Two soils were used: a seleniferous Turlock soil (collected from Kesterson Reservoir) that contained high total Se (∼40 mg kg -1 soil), high water extractable B (∼10 mg B L -1 ), and a soil salinity of ∼8 dS m -1 , and a nonseleniferous Hanford sandy loam (collected from an agricultural field site). Three plant species tested were Brassica napus cv. Westar (canola), Hibiscus cannabinus L. cv. Indian (kenaf), and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Alta (tall fescue). Only canola and kenaf grown in Turlock soil showed significant lower shoot yield (P < 0.01) than on the Hanford soil. Leaf Se was as high as 470 mg Se kg -1 DM in canola, 45 mg Se kg -1 DM in kenaf and 50 mg Se kg -1 DM in tall fescue. The same crops contained mean leaf B concentrations as high as 415 mg B kg -1 DM in kenaf, 180 mg B kg -1 DM in canola, and 111 mg B kg -1 DM in first clipping of tall fescue. The cultivation of all species led to a significant reduction (P < 0.01) of total soil Se between preplant and the final harvest by the following percentages: canola (47%), kenaf (23%), and tall fescue (21%). Successively planting of canola and to a lesser extent kenaf and tall fescue, in Se-laden soil has the potential to reduce total soil Se.

186 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of selenium toxicosis occurred at five areas where deformities of wild aquatic birds were similar to those first observed at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California.
Abstract: Ecological impacts of water-quality problems have developed in the western United States resulting from the disposal of seleniferous agricultural wastewater in wetland areas. Overt effects of selenium toxicosis occurred at five areas where deformities of wild aquatic birds were similar to those first observed at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California. These areas are: Tulare Lake Bed Area, California, Middle Green River Basin, Utah, Kendrick Reclamation Project Area, Wyoming, Sun River Basin, Montana, and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada. Potential for ecological damage is indicated at six more sites in Oregon, Colorado, the Colorado/Kansas border, and South Dakota out of 16 areas in 11 states where biological tissue data were collected. This conclusion is based on the fact that selenium bioaccumulated in bird livers to median levels that had exceeded or were in the range associated with adverse reproductive effects. Selenium concentrations in samples of fish and bird eggs support these conclusions at a majority of these areas. Reason for concern is also given for the lower Colorado River Valley, although this is not exclusively a conclusion from these reconnaissance data. Biogeochemical conditions and the extent of selenium contamination of water, bottom sediment, and biota from which this assessment was made are given here. In a companion paper, the biogeochemical pathway postulated for selenium contamination to take place from natural geologic sources to aquatic wildlife is defined.

167 citations