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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of Substituents on TICT Rate in Thioflavin T-Based Fluorescent Molecular Rotors

28 Mar 2019-International Journal of Nanoscience (World Scientific Publishing Company)-Vol. 18, pp 1940046

AbstractNew fluorescent molecular rotors (FMRs) were developed by modification of the Thioflavin T (ThT) structure via introduction of methyl and methoxy groups. Effects of the substituents on fluorescence...

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The properties of the derivatives provide new insights into the relationship between chemical structure and function of benzothiazole probes and their abilities to perform super-resolution imaging of α-synuclein fibrils with localisation precisions of ~16 nm.
Abstract: The benzothiazolium salt, Thioflavin T (ThT), has been widely adopted as the "gold-standard" fluorescent reporter of amyloid in vitro. Its properties as a molecular rotor result in a large-scale (∼1000-fold) fluorescence turn-on upon binding to β-sheets in amyloidogenic proteins. However, the complex photophysics of ThT combined with the intricate and varied nature of the amyloid binding motif means these interactions are poorly understood. To study this important class of fluorophores, we present a detailed photophysical characterization and comparison of a novel library of 12 ThT-inspired fluorescent probes for amyloid protein (PAPs), where both the charge and donor capacity of the heterocyclic and aminobenzene components have been interrogated, respectively. This enables direct photophysical juxtaposition of two structural groups: the neutral "PAP" (class 1) and the charged "mPAP" fluorophores (class 2). We quantify binding and optical properties at both the bulk and single-aggregate levels with some derivatives showing higher aggregate affinity and brightness than ThT. Finally, we demonstrate their abilities to perform super-resolution imaging of α-synuclein fibrils with localization precisions of ∼16 nm. The properties of the derivatives provide new insights into the relationship between chemical structure and function of benzothiazole probes.

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Rehybridization of the Acceptor (RICT) and Planarization ofThe Molecule (PICT) III is presented, with a comparison of the effects on yield and radiationless deactivation processes.
Abstract: 6. Rehybridization of the Acceptor (RICT) 3908 7. Planarization of the Molecule (PICT) 3909 III. Fluorescence Spectroscopy 3909 A. Solvent Effects and the Model Compounds 3909 1. Solvent Effects on the Spectra 3909 2. Steric Effects and Model Compounds 3911 3. Bandwidths 3913 4. Isoemissive Points 3914 B. Dipole Moments 3915 C. Radiative Rates and Transition Moments 3916 1. Quantum Yields and Radiationless Deactivation Processes 3916

2,602 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Molecular rotors are emerging as new biosensors for both bulk and local microviscosity, and for flow and fluid shear stress on a microscopic scale and with real-time response.
Abstract: Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid against gradients in flow (shear rate). Both flow and viscosity play an important role in all biological systems from the microscopic (e.g., cellular) to the systemic level. Many methods to measure viscosity and flow have drawbacks, such as the tedious and time-consuming measurement process, expensive instrumentation, or the restriction to bulk sample sizes. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes are known to show high sensitivity and high spatial and temporal resolution. Molecular rotors are a group of fluorescent molecules that form twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) states upon photoexcitation and therefore exhibit two competing deexcitation pathways: fluorescence emission and non-radiative deexcitation from the TICT state. Since TICT formation is viscosity-dependent, the emission intensity of molecular rotors depends on the solvent's viscosity. Furthermore, shear-stress dependency of the emission intensity was recently described. Although the photophysical processes are widely explored, the practical application of molecular rotors as sensors for viscosity and the fluid flow introduce additional challenges. Intensity-based measurements are influenced by fluid optical properties and dye concentration, and solvent–dye interaction requires calibration of the measurement system to a specific solvent. Ratiometric dyes and measurement systems help solve these challenges. In addition, the combination of molecular rotors with specific recognition groups allows them to target specific sites, for example the cell membrane or cytoplasm. Molecular rotors are therefore emerging as new biosensors for both bulk and local microviscosity, and for flow and fluid shear stress on a microscopic scale and with real-time response.

451 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presents the pertinent theories of the rotor-solvent interaction on the molecular level and how this interaction leads to the viscosity-sensitive behavior of molecular rotors.
Abstract: Molecular rotors are a group of fluorescent molecules that form twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) states upon photoexcitation. When intramolecular twisting occurs, the molecular rotor returns to the ground state either by emission of a red-shifted emission band or by nonradiative relaxation. The emission properties are strongly solvent-dependent, and the solvent viscosity is the primary determinant of the fluorescent quantum yield from the planar (non-twisted) conformation. This viscosity-sensitive behavior gives rise to applications in, for example, fluid mechanics, polymer chemistry, cell physiology, and the food sciences. However, the relationship between bulk viscosity and the molecular-scale interaction of a molecular rotor with its environment are not fully understood. This review presents the pertinent theories of the rotor-solvent interaction on the molecular level and how this interaction leads to the viscosity-sensitive behavior. Furthermore, current applications of molecular rotors as microviscosity sensors are reviewed, and engineering aspects are presented on how measurement accuracy and precision can be improved.

277 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The photophysical model successfully explains the fluorescent properties of ThT in solvents with different viscosities and supports the idea that the reason for the characteristic increase in the ThT fluorescence intensity accompanying its incorporation into the amyloid fibrils is determined by the rigidity of the dye environment.
Abstract: The effect of solvent viscosity on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescent properties is analyzed to understand the molecular mechanisms of the characteristic increase in ThT fluorescence intensity accompanying its incorporation into the amyloid-like fibrils. To this end, the dependencies of the ThT quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime on temperature and glycerol content in the water−glycerol mixtures are studied. It has been found that fluorescent properties of ThT are typical for the specific class of fluorophores known as molecular rotors. It has been established that the low ThT fluorescence intensity in the solvents with low viscosity is caused by the nonradiative deactivation of the excited state associated with the torsional motion of the ThT benzthiazole and aminobenzene rings relative to each other, which results in the transition of ThT molecule to nonfluorescent twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) state. The rate of this process is determined by the solvent viscosity, whereas the emission does oc...

254 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The advantages and disadvantages of the various nonradiative models while focusing on the model that was initially proposed by Glasbeek and co-workers for auramine-O to be the best suited for ThT are discussed.
Abstract: Thioflavin-T (ThT) can bind to amyloid fibrils and is frequently used as a fluorescent marker for in vitro biomedical assays of the potency of inhibitors for amyloid-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyloidosis. Upon binding to amyloid fibrils, the steady-state (time-integrated) emission intensity of ThT increases by orders of magnitude. The simplicity of this type of measurement has made ThT a common fluorescent marker in biomedical research over the last 50 years. As a result of the remarkable development in ultrafast spectroscopy measurements, researchers have made substantial progress in understanding the photophysical nature of ThT. Both ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations and experimental evidence have shown that the electronically excited-state surface potential of ThT is composed of two regimes: a locally excited (LE) state and a charge-transfer (CT) state. The electronic wave function of the excited state changes from the initial LE state to the CT state as a result of the rotation around a single C-C bond in the middle of the molecule, which connects the benzothiazole moiety to the dimethylanilino ring. This twisted-internal-CT (TICT) is responsible for the molecular rotor behavior of ThT. This Account discusses several factors that can influence the LE-TICT dynamics of the excited state. Solvent, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure play roles in this process. In the context of biomedical assays, the binding to amyloid fibrils inhibits the internal rotation of the molecular segments and as a result, the electron cannot cross into the nonradiative "dark" CT state. The LE state has high oscillator strength that enables radiative excited-state relaxation to the ground state. This process makes the ThT molecule light up in the presence of amyloid fibrils. In the literature, researchers have suggested several models to explain nonradiative processes. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various nonradiative models while focusing on the model that was initially proposed by Glasbeek and co-workers for auramine-O to be the best suited for ThT. We further discuss the computational fitting of the model for the nonradiative process of ThT.

250 citations