Abstract: Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of materials for characterising various key microstructural features, mechanical properties (tension, creep, fatigue crack growth, hardness and fracture toughness), deformation and damage mechanisms has attracted considerable attention in the past 20 years as a primary step towards ensuring structural integrity of components. However, until recently, the correlations between the various NDE parameters and material properties have been only empirical and based on physical principles. The interaction between the NDE probing medium and the mechanical behaviour is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the progress made in the application of non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques in evaluating various microstructural features and mechanical properties with emphasis on recent studies. Reinterpretation of older data, in the light of present understanding of the interaction of the NDE probing medium with material parameters, is carried out selectively. The NDT techniques evaluated include acoustic emission, ultrasonic attenuation and velocity, magnetic hysteresis parameters, magnetic Barkhausen emission, acoustic Barkhausen emission, laser interferometry, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Critical assessments of the applicability of the various NDE techniques for the material parameters are provided.