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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/11263504.2020.1739160

Effect of the foliar application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on some biochemical and physiological parameters of Trigonella foenum-graecum under salinity stress

04 Mar 2021-Plant Biosystems (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 155, Iss: 2, pp 267-280
Abstract: Salinity stress is one of the environmental factors that has many negative effects on the biochemical and physiological processes of the plants. In addition, according to previous reports, nanopart...

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Topics: Trigonella (61%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STRESS.2021.100006
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Salinity stress is one of the most destructive stress factors causing adverse impacts on growth and productivity of crops plants. In order to combat or to make crop plants compatible with salinity stress, many attempts have been made to alleviate the devastating impacts of salinity stress on plants. Of those attempts, engineered nano-particles (NPs) have gained great interest in recent years, having been tested in a number of crop plants; however, they remain to be investigated for medicinal and aromatic plants. For that reason, the interaction effects of cerium oxide NPs (CeO2 NPs at 25, 50 and 100 mg L−1) and salinity stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl) on Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) was evaluated. Salinity significantly decreased agronomic traits such as leaf and shoot fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigment content and SPAD, whereas it increased MDA, H2O2 and proline (Pro) content, electrolyte leakage (EL) and antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, APX and GP). However, CeO2-NP treatments enhanced growth performance of the plants exposed under salinity stress by improving agronomic traits, photosynthetic pigment content, SPAD, Pro, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, CeO2-NPs caused a decrease in MDA, H2O2 and EL via higher antioxidant enzymatic activity under salinity conditions. Of the concentrations of CeO2-NPs tested, 50 mg L−1 concentration gave the best results under both non-stress and salt-stress conditions. In conclusion, foliar spray of CeO2-NP treatments in Moldavian balm improved plant performance under salinity and may be considered as a promising treatment in alleviating the effects of salt stress.

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Topics: Dracocephalum moldavica (55%), Salinity (55%)

10 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by incretin hormones by measuring the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and coffee components on GLP-1 and GIP concentrations. A randomized cross-over trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo on total and intact GLP-1 and GIP concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test took place in fifteen overweight men. No treatment significantly affected the overall GLP-1 or GIP secretion pattern following an OGTT relative to placebo. Decaffeinated coffee slightly increased total GLP-1 concentration 30 minutes after ingestion (before the OGTT) relative to placebo (2.7 pmol/L, p = 0.03), but this change did not correspond with changes in glucose or insulin secretion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee acutely improves glucose tolerance through effects on the secretion of incretin hormones. Chronic effects of coffee and its major components still need to be investigated.

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Topics: Trigonelline (60%), Chlorogenic acid (52%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10061221
Vishnu D. Rajput1, Tatiana Minkina1, Arpna Kumari2, Harish3  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
15 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Abiotic stress in plants is a crucial issue worldwide, especially heavy-metal contaminants, salinity, and drought. These stresses may raise a lot of issues such as the generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, loss of photosynthetic efficiency, etc. that could alter crop growth and developments by affecting biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes, causing a significant loss in productivity. To overcome the impact of these abiotic stressors, many strategies could be considered to support plant growth including the use of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the majority of studies have focused on understanding the toxicity of NPs on aquatic flora and fauna, and relatively less attention has been paid to the topic of the beneficial role of NPs in plants stress response, growth, and development. More scientific attention is required to understand the behavior of NPs on crops under these stress conditions. Therefore, the present work aims to comprehensively review the beneficial roles of NPs in plants under different abiotic stresses, especially heavy metals, salinity, and drought. This review provides deep insights about mechanisms of abiotic stress alleviation in plants under NP application.

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Topics: Abiotic stress (58%), Abiotic component (55%)

7 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-822836-4.00027-6
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Abiotic stress is a major problem globally, affecting the normal metabolism of plants and subsequently reducing plant growth and yield. More than half of the world plant production is decreased due to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and metal stress. The stresses trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequently induce oxidative damage to the plant. Therefore mitigation of abiotic stress in plants is a crucial need, and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are found to be an effective mitigator. The high penetration ability and high reactivity of these NPs cause the essential micronutrient, zinc (Zn), to be sufficiently available in the plant cells, enhancing the plant metabolism and defense system. ZnO NPs stimulate the formation of phytohormones, osmolytes, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolites in plants against abiotic stress, revealing the promising role of ZnO NPs in combating the stress. However, ZnO NPs must be used in plants appropriately to obtain the benefits.

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Topics: Abiotic stress (58%), Abiotic component (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECOENV.2021.112262
Humaira Yasmin1, Javeria Mazher1, Ammar Azmat1, Asia Nosheen1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Salinity is a key devastating abiotic factor that hinders the development and yield of safflower. The sole and combined application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and a biofertilizer (BF) to improve salt tolerance in safflower has not been thoroughly explored. The response of safflower plants in a pot experiment to the foliar spray of ZnO-NPs alone and in combination with a BF was thus detected. We determined that a ZnO-NP concentration of 17 mg/L was sufficient to protect safflower against salinity (250 mM NaCl) by increasing the plant productivity, percent water content, and osmolyte levels. Coapplication of ZnO-NPs and Phytoguard protected safflower plants from salinity stress by improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing the levels of proline (leaves (61%) and roots (63%)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (leaves (54%) and roots (65%)). Under salt stress, the Na+ content increased, while seed coating with biofertilizer and ZnO-NP spray significantly decreased the Na+ concentration (74% in leaves and 60% in roots). For the K+ concentration, however, antagonistic outcomes were observed. Additionally, the combined treatment significantly enhanced agronomic parameters such as the number of leaves and pods per plant, capitulum weight, and the number of yellow and wilted leaves per plant under salinity stress. Thus, ZnO-NPs could be an effective bio-source for the protection of safflower plants under salinity stress. Our findings showed that in the combined treatment of ZnO-NPs and biofertilizer, the salinity tolerance was more pronounced than in the single treatment and untreated control. A thorough analysis at the molecular level, however, is still required to understand the mechanism by which ZnO-NPs and BF in safflower plants alleviate salt stress.

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Topics: Salinity (52%), Ion homeostasis (52%)

1 Citations


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52 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
Marion M. Bradford1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.

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Topics: Bradford protein assay (59%), Lowry protein assay (55%), Spectrin binding (55%) ... show more

214,383 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00018060
L. S. Bates1, R. P. Waldren1, I. D. Teare1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 1973-Plant and Soil
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

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12,637 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0003-9861(68)90654-1
Robert L. Heath1, Lester Packer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A photo-induced cyclic peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts is described In an osmotic buffered medium, chloroplasts upon illumination produce malondialdehyde (MDA)—a decomposition product of tri-unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides—bleach endogenous chlorophyll, and consume oxygen These processes show ( a ) no reaction in the absence of illumination; ( b ) an initial lag phase upon illumination of 10–20 minutes duration; ( c ) a linear phase in which the rate is proportional to the square root of the light intensity; ( d ) cessation of reaction occurring within 3 minutes after illumination ceases; and ( e ) a termination phase after several hours of illumination The kinetics of the above processes fit a cyclic peroxidation equation with velocity coefficients near those for chemical peroxidation The stoichiometry of MDA/O 2 = 002, and O 2 Chl bleached = 69 correlates well with MDA production efficiency in other biological systems and with the molar ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to chlorophyll The energies of activation for the lag and linear phases are 17 and 0 kcal/mole, respectively, the same as that for autoxidation During the linear phase of oxygen uptake the dependence upon temperature and O 2 concentration indicates that during the reaction, oxygen tension at the site of peroxidation is 100-fold lower than in the aqueous phase It is concluded that isolated chloroplasts upon illumination can undergo a cyclic peroxidation initiated by the light absorbed by chlorophyll Photoperoxidation results in a destruction of the chlorophyll and tri-unsaturated fatty acids of the chloroplast membranes

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Topics: Oxygen tension (56%), Light intensity (53%), Chlorophyll (53%) ... show more

7,148 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0021-9258(18)84465-9
Michael Somogyi1Institutions (1)
Topics: Sugar (52%)

5,584 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1104/PP.59.2.309
01 Feb 1977-Plant Physiology
Abstract: Shoots, roots, and seeds of corn (Zea mays L., cv. Michigan 500), oats (Avena sativa L., cv. Au Sable), and peas (Pisum sativum L., cv. Wando) were analyzed for their superoxide dismutase content using a photochemical assay system consisting of methionine, riboflavin, and p-nitro blue tetrazolium. The enzyme is present in the shoots, roots, and seeds of the three species. On a dry weight basis, shoots contain more enzyme than roots. In seeds, the enzyme is present in both the embryo and the storage tissue. Electrophoresis indicated a total of 10 distinct forms of the enzyme. Corn contained seven of these forms and oats three. Peas contained one of the corn and two of the oat enzymes. Nine of the enzyme activities were eliminated with cyanide treatment suggesting that they may be cupro-zinc enzymes, whereas one was cyanide-resistant and may be a manganese enzyme. Some of the leaf superoxide dismutases were found primarily in mitochondria or chloroplasts. Peroxidases at high concentrations interfere with the assay. In test tube assays of crude extracts from seedlings, the interference was negligible. On gels, however, peroxidases may account for two of the 10 superoxide dismutase forms.

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Topics: Superoxide dismutase (55%), Avena (53%), Pisum (50%)

4,041 Citations