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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester–containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects

01 Mar 1999-The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (American Society for Nutrition)-Vol. 69, Iss: 3, pp 403-410

TL;DR: It is concluded that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-Fat, low-cholesterol diet.

AbstractBackground: Full-fat sitostanol ester‐containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester‐containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. Objective: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester‐containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester‐containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester‐containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Results: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, b-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. Conclusions: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester‐containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:403‐10.

Topics: Stanol ester (72%), Plant stanol ester (67%)

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Abstract: This document presents guidelines for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease by dietary and other lifestyle practices. Since the previous publication of these guidelines by the American Heart Association,1 the overall approach has been modified to emphasize their relation to specific goals that the AHA considers of greatest importance for lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke. The revised guidelines place increased emphasis on foods and an overall eating pattern and the need for all Americans to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight (Table⇓). View this table: Table 1. Summary of Dietary Guidelines The major guidelines are designed for the general population and collectively replace the “Step 1” designation used for earlier AHA population-wide dietary recommendations. More individualized approaches involving medical nutrition therapy for specific subgroups (for example, those with lipid disorders, diabetes, and preexisting cardiovascular disease) replace the previous “Step 2” diet for higher-risk individuals. The major emphasis for weight management should be on avoidance of excess total energy intake and a regular pattern of physical activity. Fat intake of ≤30% of total energy is recommended to assist in limiting consumption of total energy as well as saturated fat. The guidelines continue to advocate a population-wide limitation of dietary saturated fat to <10% of energy and cholesterol to <300 mg/d. Specific intakes for individuals should be based on cholesterol and lipoprotein levels and the presence of existing heart disease, diabetes, and other risk factors. Because of increased evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of fish (particularly fatty fish), consumption of at least 2 fish servings per week is now recommended. Finally, recent studies support a major benefit on blood pressure of consuming vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, as well as limiting salt intake (<6 grams per day) and alcohol (no more than 2 drinks per day for men and …

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Journal ArticleDOI
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Dietary plant sterols, especially sitostanol, reduce serum cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Soluble sitostanol may be more effective than a less soluble preparation. We tested the tolerability and cholesterol-lowering effect of margarine containing sitostanol ester in a population with mild hypercholesterolemia. Methods We conducted a one-year, randomized, double-blind study in 153 randomly selected subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-one consumed margarine without sitostanol ester (the control group), and 102 consumed margarine containing sitostanol ester (1.8 or 2.6 g of sitostanol per day). Results The margarine containing sitostanol ester was well tolerated. The mean one-year reduction in serum cholesterol was 10.2 percent in the sitostanol group, as compared with an increase of 0.1 percent in the control group. The difference in the change in serum cholesterol concentration between the two groups was -24 mg per deciliter (95 percent confidence interval, -17 to -...

743 citations