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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of different verbal instructions on change of lumbar multifidus muscle thickness in asymptomatic adults and in patients with low back pain

01 Jan 2017-Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 25, Iss: 1, pp 22-29

TL;DR: The results of the study suggest that both groups responded similarly to the three verbal instructions, and verbal instructions may increase lumbar multifidus muscle thickness by different amounts at L4-5, but by the same amount at L5-S1.

AbstractBackground: Spinal stabilisation exercise has been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of low back pain (LBP). Due to the isometric nature of spinal stabilisation exercise, manual therapists use various verbal instructions to elicit lumbar multifidus muscle contraction.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether or not three verbal instructions would alter muscle thickness of the lumbar multifidus muscle differently in asymptomatic individuals and patients with LBP.Methods: Three verbal instructions were selected for this study: (1) swell the muscle underneath the transducer, (2) draw your belly button in towards your spinal column and (3) think about tilting your pelvis but without really doing it. Lumbar multifidus muscle thickness was determined using parasagittal ultrasound (US) imaging. Measurements of muscle thickness were collected at rest and during verbal instructions from 21 asymptomatic adults and 21 patients with LBP. Percent changes of muscle thickness during contracti...

Topics: Multifidus muscle (65%), Low back pain (56%), Lumbar (55%), Spinal column (55%), Isometric exercise (52%)

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Citations
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01 Jan 2008
Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate the intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) in obtaining thickness measurements of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus muscles at rest and during contractions. DESIGN Single-group repeated-measures reliability study. SETTING University and orthopedic physical therapy clinic. PARTICIPANTS A volunteer sample of adults (N=30) with current nonspecific low back pain (LBP) was examined by 2 clinicians with minimal RUSI experience. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Thickness measurements of the TrA and lumbar multifidus muscles at rest and during contractions were obtained by using RUSI during 2 sessions 1 to 3 days apart. Percent thickness change was calculated as thickness(contracted)-thickness(rest)/thickness(rest). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. RESULTS By using the mean of 2 measures, intraexaminer reliability point estimates (ICC(3,2)) ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 for same-day comparisons and from 0.87 to 0.98 for between-day comparisons. Interexaminer reliability estimates (ICC(2,2)) ranged from 0.88 to 0.94 for within-day comparisons and from 0.80 to 0.92 for between-day comparisons. Reliability estimates comparing measurements by the 2 examiners of the same image (ICC(2,2)) ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. Reliability estimates were lower for percent thickness change measures than the corresponding single thickness measures for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS RUSI thickness measurements of the TrA and lumbar multifidus muscles in patients with LBP, when based on the mean of 2 measures, are highly reliable when taken by a single examiner and adequately reliable when taken by different examiners.

234 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This pilot study checked the proposed systematic review protocol methodology, evaluating the evidence from the last five years, and coordinating the work of the team of reviewers in performing a complete systematic review prior to a full systematic review.
Abstract: Background: Research of ultrasound use in physiotherapy and daily practice has led to its use as an everyday tool. Methods: The aims were: (1) Checking the proposed systematic review protocol methodology; (2) evaluating the evidence from the last five years; and (3) coordinating the work of the team of reviewers in performing a complete systematic review. Thus, this is a pilot study prior to a full systematic review. The findings in databases related to health sciences with the meta-search engine Discovery EBSCO, Covidence, and Revman were used. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were described for eligibility. Results: Search provided 1029 references regarding the lumbar region on ultrasound scans. Of these, 33 were duplicates. After Covidence, 996 studies were left for screening. A full-text reading brought one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Conclusions: Validity and reliability references were found. The most suitable points were novice versus expert, and ultrasound versus electromyography (EMG) with just one RCT cohort, and observational and case reports. The lines of investigation increasingly endorsed the validity of using ultrasound in physiotherapy. Post-acquisition image analysis could also be a future line of research.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Adding tactile stimulation to verbal instruction appeared to provide an inhibitory effect on LM activity in both asymptomatic healthy adults and patients with LBP.
Abstract: Background Reduced lumbar multifidus (LM) muscle contraction has been observed in patients with low back pain (LBP). Clinicians often use various strategies to ensure LM activation, including tactile feedback and verbal instruction. However, the effects of tactile feedback on muscle activation have not been studied previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not tactile feedback would increase LM muscle activity in adults with and without LBP. Methods Twenty asymptomatic adults and 20 patients with existing LBP completed the study. Two electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were applied to both sides of the LM at the L5 segment. EMG activity was collected three times at rest with and without tactile feedback, then five times during contralateral arm lifts with and without tactile feedback. The tactile feedback was applied by direct and continuous hand contact to the bilateral LM over the lumbosacral area. Lastly, two 5-second trials of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) during a bilateral arm lift were performed. EMG activity collected at rest and during contralateral arm lifts was normalized to that collected during MVIC. Normalized EMG values of the right side of the asymptomatic group and the painful side of the LBP group were used for data analysis. Results Statistical analysis showed significantly decreased LM EMG activity with tactile feedback both at rest and during contralateral arm lifts compared to LM EMG activity without tactile feedback. There was no difference in LM EMG between the asymptomatic and the LBP groups. Conclusions The results of the study showed that adding tactile stimulation to verbal instruction appeared to provide an inhibitory effect on LM activity in both asymptomatic healthy adults and patients with LBP. Contrary to common belief, tactical feedback via direct hand contact may reduce LM muscle recruitment, and may lessen the desired treatment effect.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Deep DN with needle manipulation appeared to reduce mechanical pressure sensitivity more than DN without manipulation for patients with LBP, and although a single session of DN could reduce pressure pain sensitivity, it may not be sufficient to improve LM muscle function.
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of deep dry needling (DN) with and without needle manipulation on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and electromyographic (EMG) amplit...

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of stabilizing training for the deep core muscles of the lumbar spine in subjects with degenerative disc disease This study was conducted on 38 participants The participants were divided into two groups: the extrusion group (EXT, n = 17) and the protrusion group (PRO, n = 21) All the subjects underwent a four-week-long core stability exercise-based treatment (five sessions/week) Clinical outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention (pre), post-intervention (post) and four weeks after the intervention (follow-up) The primary outcome measures were the spinal range of motion (ROM; Spinal Mouse® device) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) In the PRO group, the ROM decreased from 8852° pre-intervention to 8333° post-intervention and to 8282° at follow-up (p = 001), while the ODI decreased from 1614 points pre-intervention to 657 points post-intervention, with 942 points at follow-up (p < 001) In the EXT group, the ROM decreased from 8100° pre-intervention to 7705° post-intervention, then increased to 7794° at follow-up (p = 003), while the ODI decreased from 2258 points pre-intervention to 1541 points post-intervention and to 1470 points at follow-up (p < 0001) Although the stabilizing exercise sessions improved the clinical outcomes in each group, we cannot make conclusions as to whether the type of intervertebral disc damage significantly affects the results of stabilizing exercise-based treatment

1 citations


References
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Book
01 Dec 1969
Abstract: Contents: Prefaces. The Concepts of Power Analysis. The t-Test for Means. The Significance of a Product Moment rs (subscript s). Differences Between Correlation Coefficients. The Test That a Proportion is .50 and the Sign Test. Differences Between Proportions. Chi-Square Tests for Goodness of Fit and Contingency Tables. The Analysis of Variance and Covariance. Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis. Set Correlation and Multivariate Methods. Some Issues in Power Analysis. Computational Procedures.

103,911 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1996-Spine
TL;DR: Multifidus muscle recovery is not spontaneous on remission of painful symptoms, and lack of localized, muscle support may be one reason for the high recurrence rate of low back pain following the initial episode.
Abstract: Study Design. A clinical study was conducted on 39 patients with acute, first-episode, unilateral low back pain and unilateral, segmental inhibition of the multifidus muscle. Patients were allocated randomly to a control or treatment group. Objectives. To document the natural course of lumbar multifidus recovery and to evaluate the effectiveness of specific, localized, exercise therapy on muscle recovery. Summary of Background Data. Acute low back pain usually resolves spontaneously, but the recurrence rate is high. Inhibition of multifidus occurs with acute, first-episode, low back pain, and pathologic changes in this muscle have been linked with poor outcome and recurrence of symptoms. Methods. Patients in group 1 received medical treatment only. Patients in group 2 received medical treatment and specific, localized, exercise therapy. Outcome measures for both groups included 4 weekly assessments of pain, disability, range of motion, and size of the multifidus cross-sectional area. Independent examiners were blinded to group allocation. Patients were reassessed at a 10-week follow-up examination. Results. Multifidus muscle recovery was not spontaneous on remission of painful symptoms in patients in group 1. Muscle recovery was more rapid and more complete in patients in group 2 who received exercise therapy (P = 0.0001). Other outcome measurements were similar for the two groups at the 4-week examination. Although they resumed normal levels of activity, patients in group 1 still had decreased multifidus muscle size at the 10-week follow-up examination. Conclusions. Multifidus muscle recovery is not spontaneous on remission of painful symptoms. Lack of localized, muscle support may be one reason for the high recurrence rate of low back pain following the initial episode.

1,038 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1994-Spine
TL;DR: The site of wasting in patients corresponded to the clinically determined level of symptoms in 24 of the 26 patients, but there was no correlation between the degree of asymmetry and severity of symptoms, suggesting that the mechanism of wasting was not generalized disuse atrophy or spinal reflex inhibition.
Abstract: The effect of low back pain on the size of the lumbar multifidus muscle was examined using real-time ultrasound imaging. Bilateral scans were performed in 26 patients with acute unilateral low back pain (LBP) symptoms (aged 17–46 years) and 51 normal subjects (aged 19–32 years). In all patients, mul

887 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The validity of a global rating of change as a reflection of meaningful change in patient status was supported by the stability of the Physical Impairment Index across the study period in patients defined as stable by the global rating and by the decrease in physical impairment across thestudy period.
Abstract: Background and Purpose. The quality of a disability scale should dictate when it is used. The purposes of this study were to examine the validity of a global rating of change as a reflection of meaningful change in patient status and to compare the measurement properties of a modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (OSW) and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QUE). Subjects. Sixty-seven patients with acute, work-related low back pain referred for physical therapy participated in the study. Methods. The 2 scales were administered initially and after 4 weeks of physical therapy. The Physical Impairment Index, a measure of physical impairment due to low back pain, was measured initially and after 2 and 4 weeks. A global rating of change survey instrument was completed by each subject after 4 weeks. Results. An interaction existed between patients defined as improved or stable based on the global rating using a 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures on the impairment index. The modified OSW showed higher levels of test-retest reliability and responsiveness compared with the QUE. The minimum clinically important difference, defined as the amount of change that best distinguishes between patients who have improved and those remaining stable, was approximately 6 points for the modified OSW and approximately 15 points for the QUE. Conclusion and Discussion. The construct validity of the global rating of change was supported by the stability of the Physical Impairment Index across the study period in patients defined as stable by the global rating and by the decrease in physical impairment across the study period in patients defined as improved by the global rating. The modified OSW demonstrated superior measurement properties compared with the QUE.

838 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: AIM OF THE GUIDELINE The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF).320 The purposes of these clinical guidelines are to: Describe evidence-based physical therapy practice including diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, and assessment of outcome for musculoskeletal disorders commonly managed by orthopaedic physical therapists Classify and define common musculoskeletal conditions using the World Health Organization’s terminology related to impairments of body function and body structure, activity limitations, and participation restrictions Identify interventions supported by current best evidence to address impairments of body function and structure, activity limitations, and participation restrictions associated with common musculoskeletal conditions Identify appropriate outcome measures to assess changes resulting from physical therapy interventions in body function and structure as well as in activity and participation of the individual Provide a description to policy makers, using internationally accepted terminology, of the practice of orthopaedic physical therapists Provide information for payers and claims reviewers regarding the practice of orthopaedic physical therapy for common musculoskeletal conditions Create a reference publication for orthopaedic physical therapy clinicians, academic instructors, clinical instructors, students, interns, residents, and fellows regarding the best current practice of orthopaedic physical therapy STATEMENT OF INTENT This guideline is not intended to be construed or to serve as a standard of medical care. Standards of care are determined on the basis of all clinical data available for an individual patient and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and patterns of care evolve. These parameters of practice should be considered guidelines only. Adherence to them will not ensure a successful outcome in every patient, nor should they be construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding other acceptable methods of care aimed at the same results. The ultimate judgment regarding a particular clinical procedure or treatment plan must be made in light of the clinical data presented by the patient, the diagnostic and treatment options available, and the patient’s values, expectations, and preferences. However, we suggest that significant departures from accepted guidelines should be documented in the patient’s medical records at the time the relevant clinical decision is made.

664 citations