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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of haemoglobin normalization on quality of life and cardiovascular parameters in end‐stage renal failure

01 Sep 2000-Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 15, Iss: 9, pp 1425-1430

TL;DR: There may be a significant haemodynamic and symptomatic advantage in maintaining a physiological [Hb] in haemodialysis patients, and a substantially higher dose of epoetin is required to maintain this level.

AbstractBACKGROUND: The optimal haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) for patients with end-stage renal failure is uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether Hb normalization may be an advantage to such patients who are otherwise well. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind cross-over study was completed in 14 haemodialysis patients (12 male) aged between 23 and 65 years over a period of 18 months, using a variety of measures to examine the effect of epoetin at target [Hb] of 10 g/dl ([Hb](10)) and 14 g/dl ([Hb](14)). Patients were randomized to maintain one or other of the target levels for 6 weeks before being crossed over to the alternative [Hb]. Baseline data (mean [Hb]: 8.5+/-0.2 g/dl) were also included selectively. Six patients were known to be hypertensive. Comparisons were made between 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels (ABP), echocardiographic findings and estimates of blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV) and Hb mass. Quality of life estimates were obtained using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and epoetin dosage requirements at target [Hb] were assessed. RESULTS: Daytime and nocturnal ABP (systolic and diastolic) were not different at the respective target [Hb], although nocturnal diastolic levels were higher compared with baseline (73+/-4 mmHg) at both [Hb](10) (83+/-3, P:<0.01) and [Hb](14) (81+/-6, P:<0.05). Significant reductions in cardiac output (5.2+/-0.3 vs 6.6+/-0.5 l/min, P:<0.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (4.8+/-0.2 vs 5.2+/-0.2 cm, P:<0. 001) were found at [Hb](14) compared with [Hb](10). Left ventricular mass index was correlated with both PV (P:<0.001) and BV (P:<0.01), but not with Hb mass. The PV decreased as the [Hb] rose (P:<0.001) but BV remained unchanged. Quality of life was significantly improved at [Hb](14) compared with [Hb](10) for both total score (6. 5+/-1.7 vs 13.4+/-3.0, P:=0.01) and psychosocial dimension score (5. 4+/-1.9 vs 15.4+/-4.0, P:<0.01). The maintenance weekly dose of epoetin required was 80% higher at [Hb](14) compared with [Hb](10) (P:<0.001). CONCLUSION: These data suggest there may be a significant haemodynamic and symptomatic advantage in maintaining a physiological [Hb] in haemodialysis patients. Although untoward effects were not identified in this study at [Hb](14), a substantially higher dose of epoetin is required to maintain this level.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with chronic kidney disease, early complete correction of anemia does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and there was no significant difference in the combined incidence of adverse events between the two groups.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Whether correction of anemia in patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease improves cardiovascular outcomes is not established. METHODS We randomly assigned 603 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15.0 to 35.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m 2 of body-surface area and mild-to-moderate anemia (hemoglobin level, 11.0 to 12.5 g per deciliter) to a target hemoglobin value in the normal range (13.0 to 15.0 g per deciliter, group 1) or the subnormal range (10.5 to 11.5 g per deciliter, group 2). Subcutaneous erythropoietin (epoetin beta) was initiated at randomization (group 1) or only after the hemoglobin level fell below 10.5 g per deciliter (group 2). The primary end point was a composite of eight cardiovascular events; secondary end points included left ventricular mass index, quality-of-life scores, and the progression of chronic kidney disease. RESULTS During the 3-year study, complete correction of anemia did not affect the likelihood of a first cardiovascular event (58 events in group 1 vs. 47 events in group 2; hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 1.14; P = 0.20). Left ventricular mass index remained stable in both groups. The mean estimated GFR was 24.9 ml per minute in group 1 and 24.2 ml per minute in group 2 at baseline and decreased by 3.6 and 3.1 ml per minute per year, respectively (P = 0.40). Dialysis was required in more patients in group 1 than in group 2 (127 vs. 111, P = 0.03). General health and physical function improved significantly (P = 0.003 and P<0.001, respectively, in group 1, as compared with group 2). There was no significant difference in the combined incidence of adverse events between the two groups, but hypertensive episodes and headaches were more prevalent in group 1. CONCLUSIONS In patients with chronic kidney disease, early complete correction of anemia does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00321919.)

1,876 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This chapter discusses clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for treatment of anemia in children and adults with Kidney Kidney disease, as well as specific cases of patients with HD-CKD.
Abstract: II. CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES AND CLINICAL PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ANEMIA IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN ADULTS S16 1.1. Identifying Patients and Initiating Evaluation .................................................... S17 1.2. Evaluation of Anemia in CKD............................................................................. S28 2.1. Hb Range ............................................................................................................ S33 3.1. Using ESAs ......................................................................................................... S54 3.2. Using Iron Agents............................................................................................... S58 3.3. Using Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Adjuvants to ESA Treatment in HD-CKD......................................................................................................... S71 3.4. Transfusion Therapy .......................................................................................... S79 3.5. Evaluating and Correcting Persistent Failure To Reach or Maintain Intended Hb....................................................................................................................... S81

904 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although treating anemia of chronic kidney disease by erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) may improve survival, most studies have examined associations between baseline hemoglobin values and survival and ignored variations in clinical and laboratory measures over time. It is not clear whether longitudinal changes in hemoglobin or administered ESA have meaningful associations with survival after adjustment for time-varying confounders. With the use of time-dependent Cox regression models, longitudinal associations were examined between survival and quarterly (13-wk averaged) hemoglobin values and administered ESA dose in a 2-yr (July 2001 to June 2003) cohort of 58,058 maintenance hemodialysis patients from a large dialysis organization (DaVita) in the United States. After time-dependent and multivariate adjustment for case mix, quarterly varying administered intravenous iron and ESA doses, iron markers, and nutritional status, hemoglobin levels between 12 and 13 g/dl were associated with the greatest survival. Among prevalent patients, the lower range of the recommended Kidney Disease Quality Outcomes Initiative hemoglobin target (11 to 11.5 g/dl) was associated with a higher death risk compared with the 11.5- to 12-g/dl range. A decrease or increase in hemoglobin over time was associated with higher or lower death risk, respectively, independent of baseline hemoglobin. Administration of any dose of ESA was associated with better survival, whereas among those who received ESA, requiring higher doses were surrogates of higher death risk. In this observational study, greater survival was associated with a baseline hemoglobin between 12 and 13 g/dl, treatment with ESA, and rising hemoglobin. Falling hemoglobin and requiring higher ESA doses were associated with decreased survival. Randomized clinical trials are required to examine these associations.

381 citations


Cites background from "Effects of haemoglobin normalizatio..."

  • ...(30,31) showed that achieving hemoglobin levels 11 g/dl reduced an elevated cardiac output, whereas the study by Foley et al....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall adverse event rates were similar in both target groups; higher rates of skeletal pain, surgery, and dizziness were seen in the lower target group, and headache and cerebrovascular events wereseen in the higher target group.
Abstract: It is unclear whether physiologic hemoglobin targets lead to cardiac benefit in incident hemodialysis patients without symptomatic heart disease and left ventricular dilation. In this randomized, double-blind study, lower (9.5 to 11.5 g/dl) and higher (13.5 to 14.5 g/dl) hemoglobin targets were generated with epoetin α over 24 wk and maintained for an additional 72 wk. Major eligibility criteria included recent hemodialysis initiation and absence of symptomatic cardiac disease and left ventricular dilation. The primary outcome measure was left ventricular volume index (LVVI). The study enrolled 596 patients. Mean age, duration of dialysis therapy, baseline predialysis hemoglobin, and LVVI were 50.8 yr, 0.8 yr, 11.0 g/dl, and 69 ml/m 2 , respectively; 18% had diabetic nephropathy. Mean hemoglobin levels in the higher and lower target groups were 13.3 and 10.9 g/dl, respectively, at 24 wk. Percentage changes in LVVI between baseline and last value were similar (7.6% in the higher and 8.3% in the lower target group) as were the changes in left ventricular mass index (16.8 versus 14.2%). For the secondary outcomes, the only between-group difference was an improved SF-36 Vitality score in the higher versus the lower target group (1.21 versus −2.31; P = 0.036). Overall adverse event rates were similar in both target groups; higher ( P

351 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The final development of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a behaviorally based measure of health status, is presented. A large field trial on a random sample of prepaid group practice enrollees and smaller trials on samples of patients with hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis and hip replacements were undertaken to assess reliability and validity of the SIP and provide data for category and item analyses. Test-retest reliability (r = 0.92) and internal consistency (r - 0.94) were high. Convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated using the multitrait--multimethod technique. Clinical validity was assessed by determining the relationship between clinical measures of disease and the SIP scores. The relationship between the SIP and criterion measures were moderate to high and in the direction hypothesized. A technique for describing and assessing similarities and differences among groups was developed using profile and pattern analysis. The final SIP contains 136 items in 12 categories. Overall, category, and dimension scores may be calculated.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients with clinically evident congestive heart failure or ischemic heart disease who are receiving hemodialysis, administration of epoetin to raise their hematocrit to 42 percent is not recommended.
Abstract: Background In patients with end-stage renal disease, anemia develops as a result of erythropoietin deficiency, and recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) is prescribed to correct the anemia partially. We examined the risks and benefits of normalizing the hematocrit in patients with cardiac disease who were undergoing hemodialysis. Methods We studied 1233 patients with clinical evidence of congestive heart failure or ischemic heart disease who were undergoing hemodialysis: 618 patients were assigned to receive increasing doses of epoetin to achieve and maintain a hematocrit of 42 percent, and 615 were assigned to receive doses of epoetin sufficient to maintain a hematocrit of 30 percent throughout the study. The median duration of treatment was 14 months. The primary end point was the length of time to death or a first nonfatal myocardial infarction. Results After 29 months, there were 183 deaths and 19 first nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the patients in the normal-hematocrit group and 150 deat...

1,930 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that clinical and echocardiographic cardiovascular disease are already present in a very high proportion of patients starting ESRD therapy and are independent mortality factors.
Abstract: Clinical and echocardiographic disease in patients starting end-stage renal disease therapy. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a high cardiovascular mortality rate. Precise estimates of the prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of different manifestations of cardiac disease are unavailable. In this study a prospective cohort of 433 ESRD patients was followed from the start of ESRD therapy for a mean of 41 months. Baseline clinical assessment and echocardiography were performed on all patients. The major outcome measure was death while on dialysis therapy. Clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease were highly prevalent at the start of ESRD therapy: 14% had coronary artery disease, 19% angina pectoris, 31% cardiac failure, 7% dysrhythmia and 8% peripheral vascular disease. On echocardiography 15% had systolic dysfunction, 32% left ventricular dilatation and 74% left ventricular hypertrophy. The overall median survival time was 50 months. Age, diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure, peripheral vascular disease and systolic dysfunction independently predicted death in all time frames. Coronary artery disease was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with cardiac failure at baseline. High left ventricular cavity volume and mass index were independently associated with death after two years. The independent associations of the different echocardiographic abnormalities were: systolic dysfunction–older age and coronary artery disease; left ventricular dilatation–male gender, anemia, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia; left ventricular hypertrophy–older age, female gender, wide arterial pulse pressure, low blood urea and hypoalbuminemia. We conclude that clinical and echocardiographic cardiovascular disease are already present in a very high proportion of patients starting ESRD therapy and are independent mortality factors.

1,211 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overstretching appears to be coupled with oxidant stress, expression of Fas, programmed cell death, architectural rearrangement of myocytes, and impairment in force development of the myocardium.
Abstract: To determine the effects of loading on active and passive tensions, programmed cell death, superoxide anion formation, the expression of Fas on myocytes, and side-to-side slippage of myocytes, papillary muscles were exposed to 7-8 and 50 mN/mm2 and these parameters were measured over a 3-h period. Overstretching produced a 21- and a 2.4-fold increase in apoptotic myocyte and nonmyocyte cell death, respectively. Concurrently, the generation of reactive oxygen species increased 2.4-fold and the number of myocytes labeled by Fas protein 21-fold. Moreover, a 15% decrease in the number of myocytes included in the thickness of the papillary muscle was found in combination with a 7% decrease in sarcomere length and the inability of muscles to maintain stable levels of passive and active tensions. The addition of the NO-releasing drug, C87-3754, prevented superoxide anion formation, programmed cell death, and the alterations in active and passive tensions with time of overloaded papillary muscles. In conclusion, overstretching appears to be coupled with oxidant stress, expression of Fas, programmed cell death, architectural rearrangement of myocytes, and impairment in force development of the myocardium.

619 citations


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