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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19390211.2020.1733730

Effects of High-Dose, Short-Duration β-Alanine Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Mood, and Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in Recreationally-Active Males Before Simulated Military Operational Stress.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Dietary Supplements (J Diet Suppl)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 147-168
Abstract: Introduction: β-alanine (BA) supplementation may improve cognition and mitigate symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with aging, neurological disorders, and physical exertion, which has be...

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Topics: Profile of mood states (61%), Mood (56%), Anxiety (52%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2020.1865758
Abstract: Objectives: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in brain and metabolic health. The fact that higher concentrations are associated with improved cognitive performance has resulted in numerous intervention trials that aim at elevating BDNF levels. This systematic review provides an overview of the relation between various nutritional factors and BDNF concentrations in controlled human intervention studies. Methods: A systematic search in May 2020 identified 48 articles that examined the effects of dietary patterns or foods (n = 3), diets based on energy intake (n = 7), vitamins and minerals (n = 7), polyphenols (n = 11), long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n = 5), probiotics (n = 8), and miscellaneous food supplements (n = 7). Results: In particular, studies with dietary patterns or foods showed increased peripheral BDNF concentrations. There are also strong indications that polyphenols tend to have a positive effect on BDNF concentrations. Four of the 11 included studies with a polyphenol intervention showed a significant increase in BDNF concentrations, one study showed an increase but this was not statistically analyzed, and two studies showed a trend to an increase. Discussion: The two polyphenol classes, phenolic acids, and other phenolic compounds were responsible for the significant effects. No clear effect was found for the other dietary factors, which might also be related to whether serum or plasma was used for BDNF analysis. More work is needed to understand the relation between peripheral and central BDNF concentrations.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00726-021-03100-W
Xi Liu, Feng Jin1, Changshui Wang1, Shiyuan Zhao1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
20 Nov 2021-Amino Acids
Abstract: Amino acids are one of the main metabolites in the body, and provide energy for the body and brain. The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of amino acid changes in the serum of patients with Moyamoya disease (MMD) and identify potential disease biomarkers. In this paper, we quantitatively determined the serum amino acid metabolic profiles of 43 MMD patients and 42 healthy controls (HCs). T test, multivariate statistical analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to identify candidate markers. Thirty-nine amino acids were quantified, and 12 amino acid levels differed significantly between the MMD patients and HCs. Moreover, based on ROC curve analysis, four amino acid (L-methionine, L-glutamic acid, β-alanine and o-phosphoserine) biomarkers showed high sensitivity and specificity (AUC > 0.90), and showed the best sensitivity and specificity in MetaboAnalyst 5.0 using binary logistic regression analysis. We have provided serum amino acid metabolic profiles of MMD patients, and identified four potential biomarkers which may both provide clinicians with an objective diagnostic method for early detection of MMD and further our understanding of MMD pathogenesis.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3758/S13423-021-01892-2
Christian Vater1, Rob Gray2, Alex O. Holcombe3Institutions (3)
Abstract: In this systematic review, we evaluate the scientific evidence behind "Neurotracker," one of the most popular perceptual-cognitive training tools in sports. The tool, which is also used in rehabilitation and aging research to examine cognitive abilities, uses a 3D multiple object-tracking (MOT) task. In this review, we examine Neurotracker from both a sport science and a basic science perspective. We first summarize the sport science debate regarding the value of general cognitive skill training, based on tools such as Neurotracker, versus sport-specific skill training. We then consider the several hundred MOT publications in cognitive and vision science from the last 30 years that have investigated cognitive functions and object tracking processes. This literature suggests that the abilities underlying object tracking are not those advertised by the Neurotracker manufacturers. With a systematic literature search, we scrutinize the evidence for whether general cognitive skills can be tested and trained with Neurotracker and whether these trained skills transfer to other domains. The literature has major limitations, for example a total absence of preregistered studies, which makes the evidence for improvements for working memory and sustained attention very weak. For other skills as well, the effects are mixed. Only three studies investigated far transfer to ecologically valid tasks, two of which did not find any effect. We provide recommendations for future Neurotracker research to improve the evidence base and for making better use of sport and basic science findings.

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Topics: Cognitive skill (57%), Cognition (56%), Cognitive training (55%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1123/JSR.2020-0550
Abstract: CONTEXT The Dynavision D2™ Mode A test (ModeA) is a 1-minute reaction time (RT) test commonly used in sports science research and clinical rehabilitation. However, there is limited data regarding the effect of repeated testing (ie, training) or subsequent periods of no testing (ie, detraining) on test-retest reliability and RT performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability, training, and detraining effects associated with the D2™ ModeA test. DESIGN Repeated measures/reliability. METHODS Twenty-four recreationally active men and women completed 15 training sessions consisting of 2 ModeA tests per session (30 tests). The participants were then randomized to either 1 or 2 weeks of detraining prior to completing 15 retraining sessions (30 tests). The training and retraining periods were separated into 10 blocks for analysis (3 tests per block). The number of hits (hits) and the average RT per hit (AvgRT) within each block were used to determine RT performance. Intraclass correlation coefficients, SEM, and minimum difference were used to determine reliability. Repeated-measures analysis of variance/analysis of covariance were used to determine training and detraining effects, respectively. RESULTS The ModeA variables demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient2,3 > .93). Significant improvements in hits and AvgRT were noted within training blocks 1 to 5 (P < .05). No further improvements in RT performance were noted between training blocks 6 through 10. There was no effect of detraining period on RT. The RT performance was not different between blocks during retraining. CONCLUSIONS It appears that 15 tests are necessary to overcome the training effect and establish reliable baseline performance for the ModeA test. Detraining for 1 to 2 weeks did not impact RT performance. The authors recommend that investigators and clinicians utilize the average of 3 tests when assessing RT performance using the D2 ModeA test.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S42779-021-00090-8
Abstract: Rice beverages are traditionally prepared and consumed popularly by the different ethnic groups of North East India and claimed to have several health benefits. In an attempt to validate the traditional claims, effects of different fractions of the beverage were studied using mouse model. To investigate its effects on behavior, mice were treated with different fractions of rice beverage that included the beverage as a whole, insoluble and soluble fractions. Intragastric treatments of these fractions were given to the mice (n = 6 per group) for 30 days, and behavioral studies were performed on elevated plus and Y maze to evaluate anxiety and spatial memory, respectively. Next-generation sequencing of metagenomic DNA of the beverage indicated the presence of 157 OTUs, and 26 bacterial genera were dominant with an abundance of 0.1%. The insoluble fraction and the whole beverage treatments reduced the anxiety-like symptoms in animals indicating the probable role of microbes. Spatial memory improved in all the treatments compared to the control, of which the rice beverage treatment showed the highest levels (p < 0.05). Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling of the beverage revealed 10 alcohols, 29 sachharides, 43 acids, and 13 amino acids. Findings of this study suggest a positive effect of rice beverage on anxiety and spatial memory of mice, justifying the claims by ethnic communities on its role on mood regulation.

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References
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60 results found


Open accessBook
Jacob Cohen1Institutions (1)
01 Dec 1969-
Abstract: Contents: Prefaces. The Concepts of Power Analysis. The t-Test for Means. The Significance of a Product Moment rs (subscript s). Differences Between Correlation Coefficients. The Test That a Proportion is .50 and the Sign Test. Differences Between Proportions. Chi-Square Tests for Goodness of Fit and Contingency Tables. The Analysis of Variance and Covariance. Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis. Set Correlation and Multivariate Methods. Some Issues in Power Analysis. Computational Procedures.

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Topics: Goodness of fit (61%), Contingency table (57%), Effect size (56%) ... read more

103,911 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/JAPPL.1974.37.2.247
Abstract: DILL, D. B., AND I>. L. &STILL. Calculation of pcrccntage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 37(2): 247-248. 1974.-Observations on hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were Inade in six men before and after running long enough to cause a 4y0 decrease in body weight. Subscripts B and A were used to denote before dehydration and after dehydration, respectively. Relations were derived between BVn, BVA, Hbn, HbA, Hctg, and HctA with which one can calculate the percentage decreases in BV, CV, and PV, as well as the concentration of hemoglobin in red cells, g. 100 ml-l (MCHC). When subjects reach the same level of dehydration the water loss from the various body compartments may vary reflecting difference in salt losses in sweat. Changes in PV calculated from the increase in plasma protein concentration averaged 7.5(z compared with 12.2 y0 calculated from changes in Hb and Hct. The difference could be accounted for by a loss of 6v10 plasma protein from the circulation.

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Topics: Hematocrit (67%), Blood plasma (67%), Blood volume (66%) ... read more

3,272 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1467-9280.1997.TB00545.X
Abstract: We report an experiment testing the hypothesis that impulsive behavior reflects a deficit in the ability to inhibit prepotent responses Specifically, we examined whether impulsive people respond more slowly to signals to inhibit (stop signals) than non-impulsive people In this experiment, 136 undergraduate students completed an impulsivity questionnaire and then participated in a stop-signal experiment, in which they performed a choice reaction time (go) task and were asked to inhibit their responses to the go task when they heard a stop signal The delay between the go signal and the stop signal was determined by a tracking procedure designed to allow subjects to inhibit on 50% of the stop-signal trials Reaction time to the go signal did not vary with impulsivity, but estimated stop-signal reaction time was longer in more impulsive subjects, consistent with the hypothesis and consistent with results from populations with pathological problems with impulse control

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Topics: Stop signal (59%), Impulsivity (56%)

1,281 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1129663
Zhe-Yu Chen1, Deqiang Jing1, Kevin G. Bath1, Alessandro Ieraci1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
06 Oct 2006-Science
Abstract: A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a methionine (Met) substitution for valine (Val) at codon 66 (Val66Met), is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory, but its relevance to clinical disorders is unclear. We generated a variant BDNF mouse (BDNFMet/Met) that reproduces the phenotypic hallmarks in humans with the variant allele. BDNFMet was expressed in brain at normal levels, but its secretion from neurons was defective. When placed in stressful settings, BDNFMet/Met mice exhibited increased anxiety-related behaviors that were not normalized by the antidepressant, fluoxetine. A variant BDNF may thus play a key role in genetic predispositions to anxiety and depressive disorders.

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Topics: rs6265 (64%), Genetic predisposition (51%)

1,171 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/381706A0
20 Jun 1996-Nature
Abstract: NEUROTROPHINS promote neuronal survival and differentiation, but the fact that their expression is modified by neuronal activity, suggests a role in regulating synapse development and plasticity1–3. In developing hippocampus, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB4–7 increases in parallel with the ability to undergo long-term potentiation (LTP)8–10. Here we report a mechanism by which BDNF modulates hippocampal LTP. Exogenous BDNF promoted the induction of LTP by tetanic stimulation in young (postnatal day 12–13) hippocampal slices, which in the absence of BDNF show only short-term potentiation (STP). This effect was due to an enhanced ability of hippocampal synapses to respond to tetanic stimulation, rather than to a direct modulation of the LTP-triggering mechanism. A TrkB–IgG fusion protein, which scavenges endogenous BDNF11, reduced the synaptic responses to tetanus as well as the magnitude of LTP in adult hippocampus. Our results suggest that BDNF may regulate LTP in developing and adult hippocampus by enhancing synaptic responses to tetanic stimulation.

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1,059 Citations