scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of pretreatment with microbial phytase on phosphorous utilization and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

01 Apr 2008-Aquaculture Nutrition (Blackwell Publishing Ltd)-Vol. 14, Iss: 2, pp 99-109

TL;DR: The results showed that diets pretreated with phytase gave better growth performance, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of Nile tilapia compared with thephytase control diet and pretreatment control diet (P 0.05).

AbstractThis study was to assess effects of the pretreatment in allplant based diets with microbial phytase on phosphorous utilization and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pretreatment trials were conducted using phytase at graded doses to determine the optimal dose of phytase. Available phosphorus (P) levels increased significantly with the increased doses of phytase and the dose of 1000 U kg )1 was most efficient. Based on the pretreatment trials, plant based diets for Nile tilapia were formulated by pretreating with phytase at 1000 U kg )1 . Experimental diets were supplemented with graded levels of mono calcium phosphate (MCP) at 25, 18.75, 12.5, 6.25 and 0 g kg )1 diet. In addition, there were three controls: one phytase control, one inorganic P control and one pretreatment control. The results showed that diets pretreated with phytase gave better growth performance, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of Nile tilapia compared with the phytase control diet and pretreatment control diet (P 0.05), which resulted in significantly better performance than those at 6.25 and 0 g kg )1 (P 0.05).

Topics: Phytase (60%), Nile tilapia (55%), Oreochromis (51%), Feed conversion ratio (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Effects of phytate on fish, dephytinisation processes, phytase and pathway forphytate degradation,phytase production systems, mode ofPhytase application, bioefficacy of phyllase, effects of Phytase on growth performance, nutrient utilization and aquatic environment pollution, and optimum dosage of phydase in fish diets are discussed.
Abstract: Phytate formed during maturation of plant seeds and grains is a common constituent of plant-derived fish feed. Phytate-bound phosphorus (P) is not available to gastric or agastric fish. A major concern about the presence of phytate in the aquafeed is its negative effect on growth performance, nutrient and energy utilization, and mineral uptake. Bound phytate-P, can be effectively converted to available-P by phytase. During the last decade, phytase has been used by aqua feed industries to enhance the growth performance, nutrient utilization and bioavailability of macro and micro minerals in fish and also to reduce the P pollution into the aquatic environment. Phytase activity is highly dependent on the pH of the fish gut. Unlike mammals, fish are either gastric or agastric, and hence, the action of dietary phytase varies from species to species. In comparison to poultry and swine production, the use of phytase in fish feed is still in an unproven stage. This review discusses effects of phytate on fish, dephytinisation processes, phytase and pathway for phytate degradation, phytase production systems, mode of phytase application, bioefficacy of phytase, effects of phytase on growth performance, nutrient utilization and aquatic environment pollution, and optimum dosage of phytase in fish diets.

230 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The supplementation of diets with phytase has the potential to enhance tilapia growth without detrimental impacts on intestinal health.
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth and general health status. Tilapia (38.7 g) were fed one of four plant-based diets (408 g kg−1protein, 78 g kg−1 lipid); one of which was a control and the remaining three were supplemented with exogenous enzymes (phytase, protease and carbohydrase at 300 mg kg−1, 200 mg kg−1, and 300 mg kg−1, respectively). Tilapia fed the phytase supplemented diet displayed higher final body weight, FBW (94.9 g fish−1) and specific growth rate, SGR (2.48% day−1) compared to tilapia fed the control diet (82.6 g fish−1 FBW and 2.11% day−1 SGR) (P < 0.05). In terms of feed conversion ratio, FCR and protein efficiency ratio, PER, tilapia fed diet supplemented with phytase (1.36 FCR and 1.08 PER) performed better (P < 0.05) than tilapia fed the control diet (1.68 FCR and 0.80 PER). However, the dietary treatments had no significant effect on tilapia somatic indices (P ˃ 0.05). The level of circulatory red blood cells was higher (P < 0.05) in tilapia fed the carbohydrase supplemented diet (1.98 × 106 μL−1) compare to those fed the control diet. Dietary treatments did not affect the mid-intestinal perimeter ratio, goblet cell abundance and intraepithelial leucocytes abundance. However, the microvilli density of the mid-intestine was higher (P < 0.05) in tilapia fed the phytase (15.6) and carbohydrase (16.0) supplemented diets compared to those fed the control (10.4) and protease (11.5) supplemented diets. The intestinal bacterial community profile of tilapia fed the carbohydrase supplemented diet was significantly altered in contrast to those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The supplementation of diets with phytase has the potential to enhance tilapia growth without detrimental impacts on intestinal health.

60 citations


Cites background from "Effects of pretreatment with microb..."

  • ...Cao et al. (2008) 342 reported the same effect when Nile tilapia were fed with a phytase supplemented 343 diet; the phytase supplemented diet gave better growth performance, FCR and PER 344 compared with the control group....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The highest phytase activity was observed in the bacterial strains LF1 and LH1 isolated from the fore and the hindgut regions of rohu respectively, and both the strains were identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of phenotypic characteristics as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis.
Abstract: Isolation and enumeration of phytase-producing bacterial flora in the foregut and hindgut regions of the gastrointestinal tracts of 10 culturable freshwater teleosts of different feeding habits, namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), bata (Labeo bata), kalbasu (Labeo calbasu), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), climbing perch (Anabas testudineus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), have been carried out. Microbial culture of the gut mucosa on selected nutrient media following the enrichment culture technique was performed for bacterial isolation. The bacterial isolates were screened on the basis of their enzyme-producing ability. The bacterial population on the tryptone soya agar (TSA) plate was maximum in the hindgut region of bata, followed by mrigal and minimum in the foregut region of Nile tilapia. In modified phytase screening medium (MPSM), phytase-producing strains were recorded at higher densities in the foregut region of mrigal and grass carp and minimum in the foregut region of bata. In case of the hindgut, maximum phytase-producing strains were present in grass carp and mrigal and minimum in rohu. In general, in MPSM, the bacterial population was lower in the hindgut region of all the 10 species of fish examined. The phytase-producing ability of the selected 31 strains (16 from the foregut and 15 from the hindgut region) was determined by clearing zones on phytate-containing plates. Among these isolates, 22 strains (12 from the foregut and 10 from the hindgut region) were selected as potent phytase producers according to a quantitative enzyme assay. The highest phytase activity was observed in the bacterial strains LF1 and LH1 isolated from the fore and the hindgut regions of rohu respectively. Both the strains were identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of phenotypic characteristics as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The modified TGC models produced a better fit of the growth trajectory of the fish on the commercial farm across production stages compared with other growth models (specific growth rate, linear model).
Abstract: A feed requirement and waste output model for commercial tilapia production was developed using the Fish-PrFEQ bioenergetics factorial approach and by an integration of data from commercial sources and the scientific literature. Different growth models were compared to determine the growth trajectory during three different production stages (nursery, 1–30 g body weight (BW); pre-growout, 30–220 g BW; and growout, > 220 g BW) based on data from a commercial tilapia farm in Ecuador. Feed requirement was estimated based on digestible energy requirement (DE req ), calculated from the expected energy gain (recovered energy, RE), and estimates of energy losses associated with basal metabolism (HeE), heat increment of feeding (HiE), and urinary and branchial excretion (UE + ZE), all estimated by compiling and analysing data from published studies. The waste outputs were estimated using a nutrient mass balance approach. Feed requirement model simulations were compared with the results from a growth trial carried out under controlled conditions. The modified TGC models produced a better fit of the growth trajectory of the fish on the commercial farm across production stages compared with other growth models (specific growth rate, linear model). Values predicted for body weight ( r = 0.998, P r = 0.849, P

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on the results, supplemental dietary phytase, regardless of application methodology, improved the ADCs of nutrients in grass carp, and the pretreatment mode ofphytase application was more effective than spraying at the same phyt enzyme level.
Abstract: The effects of supplemental graded levels of neutral phytase using pretreatment and spraying methods on the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of protein, minerals and amino acids were investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (mean weight, 20.92 ± 1.04 g). Seven experimental diets were prepared as: no-phytase supplementation (control), pretreatment with phytase dose of 500 U (PP500), 1000 U (PP1000) and 1500 U (PP1500) per kg diet. With spraying method, the phytase was added to feed at the same three grades, namely 500 U (PS500), 1000 U (PS1000) and 1500 U (PS1500) per kg diet. After an 8-week feeding trial, addition of phytase improved the crude protein, crude lipid, dry matter, ash, phosphorus and calcium digestibilities in comparison with the control, especially in the diets where phytase addition level was above 1000 U kg−1 (P < 0.05). Phytase supplementation, both the pretreatment and spraying, significantly enhanced the ADCs of essential amino acid (EAA) and non-essential amino acid. The ADCs of the nutrients were significantly influenced by phytase supplementation methods, supplementation levels and interaction of methods and levels. Based on the results, supplemental dietary phytase, regardless of application methodology, improved the ADCs of nutrients in grass carp, and the pretreatment mode of phytase application was more effective than spraying at the same phytase level. We suggest that the optimal level of phytase pretreatment is 1000 U kg−1 diet, and the best addition level of phytase spraying is 1500 U kg−1 diet or more phytase is required for spraying.

31 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1992
Abstract: Set your standards with these standard methods. This is it: the most widely read publication in the water industry, your all-inclusive reference tool. This comprehensive reference covers all aspects of USEPA-approved water analysis methods. More than 400 methods - all detailed step-by-step; 8 vibrant, full-color pages of aquatic algae illustrations; Never-before-seen figures that will help users with toxicity testing and the identification of apparatus used in the methods; Over 300 superbly illustrated figures; A new analytical tool for a number of inorganic nonmetals; Improved coverage of data evaluation, sample preservation, and reagant water; And much more!

78,276 citations


01 Jan 1960

23,007 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

21,053 citations



Book
01 Feb 1993

1,685 citations