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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of Selenium Supplementation for Cancer Prevention in Patients With Carcinoma of the Skin: A Randomized Controlled Trial

TL;DR: Results from secondary end-point analyses support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the incidence of, and mortality from, carcinomas of several sites and require confirmation in an independent trial of appropriate design before new public health recommendations regarding seenium supplementation can be made.
Abstract: Objective. —To determine whether a nutritional supplement of selenium will decrease the incidence of cancer. Design. —A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cancer prevention trial. Setting. —Seven dermatology clinics in the eastern United States. Patients. —A total of 1312 patients (mean age, 63 years; range, 18-80 years) with a history of basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were randomized from 1983 through 1991. Patients were treated for a mean (SD) of 4.5 (2.8) years and had a total follow-up of 6.4 (2.0) years. Interventions. —Oral administration of 200 μg of selenium per day or placebo. Main Outcome Measures. —The primary end points for the trial were the incidences of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. The secondary end points, established in 1990, were all-cause mortality and total cancer mortality, total cancer incidence, and the incidences of lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Results. —After a total follow-up of 8271 person-years, selenium treatment did not significantly affect the incidence of basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer. There were 377 new cases of basal cell skin cancer among patients in the selenium group and 350 cases among the control group (relative risk [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.28), and 218 new squamous cell skin cancers in the selenium group and 190 cases among the controls (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93-1.39). Analysis of secondary end points revealed that, compared with controls, patients treated with selenium had a nonsignificant reduction in all-cause mortality (108 deaths in the selenium group and 129 deaths in the control group [RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63-1.08]) and significant reductions in total cancer mortality (29 deaths in the selenium treatment group and 57 deaths in controls [RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.80]), total cancer incidence (77 cancers in the selenium group and 119 in controls [RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85]), and incidences of lung, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Primarily because of the apparent reductions in total cancer mortality and total cancer incidence in the selenium group, the blinded phase of the trial was stopped early. No cases of selenium toxicity occurred. Conclusions. —Selenium treatment did not protect against development of basal or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. However, results from secondary end-point analyses support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the incidence of, and mortality from, carcinomas of several sites. These effects of selenium require confirmation in an independent trial of appropriate design before new public health recommendations regarding selenium supplementation can be made.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process and the role of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors.

5,937 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Selenium is needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS.

3,359 citations

01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: The essential trace mineral, selenium, is of fundamental importance to human health as mentioned in this paper, and it is needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS.
Abstract: The essential trace mineral, selenium, is of fundamental importance to human health. As a constituent of selenoproteins, selenium has structural and enzymic roles, in the latter context being best-known as an antioxidant and catalyst for the production of active thyroid hormone. Selenium is needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS. It is required for sperm motility and may reduce the risk of miscarriage. Deficiency has been linked to adverse mood states. Findings have been equivocal in linking selenium to cardiovascular disease risk although other conditions involving oxidative stress and inflammation have shown benefits of a higher selenium status. An elevated selenium intake may be associated with reduced cancer risk. Large clinical trials are now planned to confirm or refute this hypothesis. In the context of these health effects, low or diminishing selenium status in some parts of the world, notably in some European countries, is giving cause for concern.

3,068 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The TrxR-catalyzed regeneration of several antioxidant compounds, including ascorbic acid (vitamin C), selenium-containing substances, lipoic acid, and ubiquinone are summarized.

2,632 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The crucial factor that needs to be emphasised with regard to the health effects of selenium is the inextricable U-shaped link with status; whereas additional seenium intake may benefit people with low status, those with adequate-to-high status might be affected adversely and should not take selenum supplements.

2,297 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A policy of not making adjustments for multiple comparisons is preferable because it will lead to fewer errors of interpretation when the data under evaluation are not random numbers but actual observations on nature.
Abstract: Adjustments for making multiple comparisons in large bodies of data are recommended to avoid rejecting the null hypothesis too readily. Unfortunately, reducing the type I error for null associations increases the type II error for those associations that are not null. The theoretical basis for advocating a routine adjustment for multiple comparisons is the "universal null hypothesis" that "chance" serves as the first-order explanation for observed phenomena. This hypothesis undermines the basic premises of empirical research, which holds that nature follows regular laws that may be studied through observations. A policy of not making adjustments for multiple comparisons is preferable because it will lead to fewer errors of interpretation when the data under evaluation are not random numbers but actual observations on nature. Furthermore, scientists should not be so reluctant to explore leads that may turn out to be wrong that they penalize themselves by missing possibly important findings.

4,854 citations

01 Jan 1953

3,970 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results are in accord with two previous trials with different pharmacologic agents and indicate that modification of lipoprotein levels with gemfibrozil reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease in men with dyslipidemia.
Abstract: In a randomized, double-blind five-year trial, we tested the efficacy of simultaneously elevating serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lowering levels of non-HDL cholesterol with gemfibrozil in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in 4081 asymptomatic middle-aged men (40 to 55 years of age) with primary dyslipidemia (non-HDL cholesterol greater than or equal to 200 mg per deciliter [5.2 mmol per liter] in two consecutive pretreatment measurements). One group (2051 men) received 600 mg of gemfibrozil twice daily, and the other (2030 men) received placebo. Gemfibrozil caused a marked increase in HDL cholesterol and persistent reductions in serum levels of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. There were minimal changes in serum lipid levels in the placebo group. The cumulative rate of cardiac end points at five years was 27.3 per 1,000 in the gemfibrozil group and 41.4 per 1,000 in the placebo group--a reduction of 34.0 percent in the incidence of coronary heart disease (95 percent confidence interval, 8.2 to 52.6; P less than 0.02; two-tailed test). The decline in incidence in the gemfibrozil group became evident in the second year and continued throughout the study. There was no difference between the groups in the total death rate, nor did the treatment influence the cancer rates. The results are in accord with two previous trials with different pharmacologic agents and indicate that modification of lipoprotein levels with gemfibrozil reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease in men with dyslipidemia.

3,697 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This report is the first simple account yet published for non-statistical physicians of how to analyse efficiently data from clinical trials of survival duration, and it may be preferable to use these statistical methods to study time to local recurrence of tumour, or toStudy time to detectable metastatic spread, in addition to studying total survival.
Abstract: The Medical Research Council has for some years encouraged collaborative clinical trials in leukaemia and other cancers, reporting the results in the medical literature. One unreported result which deserves such publication is the development of the expertise to design and analyse such trials. This report was prepared by a group of British and American statisticians, but it is intended for people without any statistical expertise. Part I, which appears in this issue, discusses the design of such trials; Part II, which will appear separately in the January 1977 issue of the Journal, gives full instructions for the statistical analysis of such trials by means of life tables and the logrank test, including a worked example, and discusses the interpretation of trial results, including brief reports of 2 particular trials. Both parts of this report are relevant to all clinical trials which study time to death, and wound be equally relevant to clinical trials which study time to other particular classes of untoward event: first stroke, perhaps, or first relapse, metastasis, disease recurrence, thrombosis, transplant rejection, or death from a particular cause. Part I, in this issue, collects together ideas that have mostly already appeared in the medical literature, but Part II, next month, is the first simple account yet published for non-statistical physicians of how to analyse efficiently data from clinical trials of survival duration. Such trials include the majority of all clinical trials of cancer therapy; in cancer trials,however, it may be preferable to use these statistical methods to study time to local recurrence of tumour, or to study time to detectable metastatic spread, in addition to studying total survival. Solid tumours can be staged at diagnosis; if this, or any other available information in some other disease is an important determinant of outcome, it can be used to make the overall logrank test for the whole heterogeneous trial population more sensitive, and more intuitively satisfactory, for it will then only be necessary to compare like with like, and not, by chance, Stage I with Stage III.

2,047 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate that vitamin and mineral supplementation of the diet of Linxian adults, particularly with the combination of beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium, may effect a reduction in cancer risk in this population.
Abstract: Background Epidemiologic evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of several cancers, including cancers of the esophagus and stomach. Vitamins and minerals in these foods may contribute to the reduced cancer risk. The people of Linxian County, China, have one of the world's highest rates of esophageal/gastric cardia cancer and a persistently low intake of several micronutrients. Purpose We sought to determine if dietary supplementation with specific vitamins and minerals can lower mortality from or incidence of cancer as well as mortality from other diseases in Linxian. Methods Individuals of ages 40-69 were recruited in 1985 from four Linxian communes. Mortality and cancer incidence during March 1986-May 1991 were ascertained for 29,584 adults who received daily vitamin and mineral supplementation throughout this period. The subjects were randomly assigned to intervention groups according to a one-half replicate of a 2(4) factorial experimental design. This design enabled testing for the effects of four combinations of nutrients: (A) retinol and zinc; (B) riboflavin and niacin; (C) vitamin C and molybdenum; and (D) beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium. Doses ranged from one to two times U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances. Results A total of 2127 deaths occurred among trial participants during the intervention period. Cancer was the leading cause of death, with 32% of all deaths due to esophageal or stomach cancer, followed by cerebrovascular disease (25%). Significantly (P = .03) lower total mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.99) occurred among those receiving supplementation with beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium. The reduction was mainly due to lower cancer rates (RR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.75-1.00), especially stomach cancer (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99), with the reduced risk beginning to arise about 1-2 years after the start of supplementation with these vitamins and minerals. No significant effects on mortality rates from all causes were found for supplementation with retinol and zinc, riboflavin and niacin, or vitamin C and molybdenum. Patterns of cancer incidence, on the basis of 1298 cases, generally resembled those for cancer mortality. Conclusions The findings indicate that vitamin and mineral supplementation of the diet of Linxian adults, particularly with the combination of beta carotene, vitamin E, and selenium, may effect a reduction in cancer risk in this population. Implications The results on their own are not definitive, but the promising findings should stimulate further research to clarify the potential benefits of micronutrient supplements.

1,706 citations

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