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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/JAHA.120.019463

Effects of Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Outcomes in Patients Without Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized-Controlled Trials.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of the American Heart Association (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health))-Vol. 10, Iss: 5
Abstract: Background Recent studies have increasingly shown that sodium‐glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may have beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects in patients without diabetes mellit...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00591-2
Nicholas Syn1, David E. Cummings2, Louis Zizhao Wang1, Daryl J. Lin1  +15 moreInstitutions (6)
15 May 2021-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Metabolic–bariatric surgery delivers substantial weight loss and can induce remission or improvement of obesity-related risks and complications. However, more robust estimates of its effect on long-term mortality and life expectancy—especially stratified by pre-existing diabetes status—are needed to guide policy and facilitate patient counselling. We compared long-term survival outcomes of severely obese patients who received metabolic–bariatric surgery versus usual care. Methods We did a prespecified one-stage meta-analysis using patient-level survival data reconstructed from prospective controlled trials and high-quality matched cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE (via Ovid) for randomised trials, prospective controlled studies, and matched cohort studies comparing all-cause mortality after metabolic–bariatric surgery versus non-surgical management of obesity published between inception and Feb 3, 2021. We also searched grey literature by reviewing bibliographies of included studies as well as review articles. Shared-frailty (ie, random-effects) and stratified Cox models were fitted to compare all-cause mortality of adults with obesity who underwent metabolic–bariatric surgery compared with matched controls who received usual care, taking into account clustering of participants at the study level. We also computed numbers needed to treat, and extrapolated life expectancy using Gompertz proportional-hazards modelling. The study protocol is prospectively registered on PROSPERO, number CRD42020218472. Findings Among 1470 articles identified, 16 matched cohort studies and one prospective controlled trial were included in the analysis. 7712 deaths occurred during 1·2 million patient-years. In the overall population consisting 174 772 participants, metabolic–bariatric surgery was associated with a reduction in hazard rate of death of 49·2% (95% CI 46·3–51·9, p Interpretation Among adults with obesity, metabolic–bariatric surgery is associated with substantially lower all-cause mortality rates and longer life expectancy than usual obesity management. Survival benefits are much more pronounced for people with pre-existing diabetes than those without. Funding None.

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Topics: Prospective cohort study (57.99%), Cohort study (57.99%), Survival rate (55%) ... show more

21 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10741-021-10106-9
Marijana Tadic, Carla Sala1, Sahrai Saeed2, Guido Grassi1  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: New antidiabetic therapy that includes sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors showed significant benefit on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this was particularly confirmed for SGLT2 inhibitors in subjects with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Their role on patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still not elucidated, but encouraging results coming from the clinical studies indicate their beneficial role. The role of GLP-1R agonists and particularly DPP-4 inhibitors is less clear and debatable. Findings from the meta-analyses are sending positive message about the use of GLP-1R agonists in HFrEF therapy and revealed the improvement of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in HFpEF. Nevertheless, the relevant medical societies still consider their effect as neutral or insufficiently investigated in HF patients. The impact of DPP-4 inhibitors in HF is the most controversial due to conflicting data that range from negative impact and increased risk of hospitalization due to HF, throughout neutral effect, to beneficial influence on LV diastolic dysfunction. However, this is a very heterogeneous group of medications and some professional societies made clear discrepancy between saxagliptin that might increase risk of HF hospitalization and those DPP-4 inhibitors that have no effect on hospitalization. The aim of this review is to summarize current clinical evidence about the effect of new antidiabetic medications on LV diastolic function and their potential benefits in HFpEF patients.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2021.690529
Abstract: The cardiorenal benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are established, whereas those in patients without T2DM are not established. We sought to assess the cardiorenal efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors in non-T2DM patients by performing a meta-analysis based on the subgroup data of non-T2DM patients from relevant secondary analysis articles in which subgroup analyses were done according to the status of diabetes. Compared to placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced heart failure hospitalization [risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.83] and kidney-specific composite outcome (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.75) and increased Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total score by 1.15 (95% CI 1.05-1.25) in patients without T2DM with heart failure (HF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), whereas gliflozins did not significantly affect cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, volume depletion, fracture, and amputation in this vulnerable population. There was no event of major hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis observed in the non-T2DM subgroup in included trials. These findings will further prompt gliflozins to be used for the prevention of HF and renal failure events and for the improvement of life quality in patients without T2DM with HF or CKD.

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Topics: Kidney disease (55%), Diabetes mellitus (52%), Hypoglycemia (51%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS221910842
Ahasanul Hasan1, Raquibul Hasan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The antidiabetic drug empagliflozin is reported to produce a range of cardiovascular effects, including a reduction in systemic blood pressure. However, whether empagliflozin directly modulates the contractility of resistance-size mesenteric arteries remains unclear. Here, we sought to investigate if empagliflozin could relax resistance-size rat mesenteric arteries and the associated underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute empagliflozin application produces a concentration-dependent vasodilation in myogenic, depolarized and phenylephrine (PE)-preconstricted mesenteric arteries. Selective inhibition of smooth muscle cell voltage-gated K+ channels KV1.5 and KV7 abolished empagliflozin-induced vasodilation. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels and ATP-sensitive (KATP) channels did not abolish vasodilation. Inhibition of the vasodilatory signaling axis involving endothelial nitric oxide (NO), smooth muscle cell soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and protein kinase G (PKG) did not abolish empagliflozin-evoked vasodilation. Inhibition of the endothelium-derived vasodilatory molecule prostacyclin (PGI2) had no effect on the vasodilation. Consistently, empagliflozin-evoked vasodilation remained unaltered by endothelium denudation. Overall, our data suggest that empagliflozin stimulates smooth muscle cell KV channels KV1.5 and KV7, resulting in vasodilation in resistance-size mesenteric arteries. This study demonstrates for the first time a novel mechanism whereby empagliflozin regulates arterial contractility, resulting in vasodilation. Due to known antihypertensive properties, treatment with empagliflozin may complement conventional antihypertensive therapy.

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Topics: Mesenteric arteries (60%), Vasodilation (59%), Soluble guanylyl cyclase (56.99%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00325481.2021.2002580
Abstract: Cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of death and disability across the globe and is especially burdensome on patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) [1]. Numerous cellular an...

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Topics: Cause of death (52%)

References
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26 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000100
18 Aug 2009-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

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Topics: Systematic review (62%), Meta-analysis (51%)

22,678 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.D5928
18 Oct 2011-BMJ
Abstract: Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate

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16,113 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1504720
Bernard Zinman1, Christoph Wanner2, John M. Lachin3, David Fitchett2  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known. METHODS We randomly assigned patients to receive 10 mg or 25 mg of empagliflozin or placebo once daily. The primary composite outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as analyzed in the pooled empagliflozin group versus the placebo group. The key secondary composite outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS A total of 7020 patients were treated (median observation time, 3.1 years). The primary outcome occurred in 490 of 4687 patients (10.5%) in the pooled empagliflozin group and in 282 of 2333 patients (12.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the empagliflozin group, 0.86; 95.02% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.04 for superiority). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of myocardial infarction or stroke, but in the empagliflozin group there were significantly lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes (3.7%, vs. 5.9% in the placebo group; 38% relative risk reduction), hospitalization for heart failure (2.7% and 4.1%, respectively; 35% relative risk reduction), and death from any cause (5.7% and 8.3%, respectively; 32% relative risk reduction). There was no significant between-group difference in the key secondary outcome (P = 0.08 for superiority). Among patients receiving empagliflozin, there was an increased rate of genital infection but no increase in other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events who received empagliflozin, as compared with placebo, had a lower rate of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome and of death from any cause when the study drug was added to standard care. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPA-REG OUTCOME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01131676.)

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Topics: Empagliflozin (70%), Relative risk reduction (54%), Cause of death (52%) ... show more

5,890 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1611925
Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic1, Vlado Perkovic2, Kenneth W. Mahaffey3  +7 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: BackgroundCanagliflozin is a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. MethodsThe CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% c...

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Topics: Canagliflozin (61%), Gliflozin (56.99%), Type 2 diabetes (53%) ... show more

3,546 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1911303
Abstract: Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-ind...

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Topics: Dapagliflozin (59%), Ejection fraction (57.99%), Heart failure (56%) ... show more

1,797 Citations