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Journal ArticleDOI

Effects of toxic concentrations of natrium fluoride on growth and enzyme activities of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and jute ( Corchorus olitorius L.) seedlings

01 Jan 1982-Biologia Plantarum (Springer Netherlands)-Vol. 24, Iss: 1, pp 34-38
TL;DR: Germination was increasingly inhibited at concentrations above 5 and 20 mM and stopped altogether at 80 and 50 mM NaF in rice and jute respectively, whereas the inhibition of seedling growth began at much lower concentrations.
Abstract: Germination was increasingly inhibited at concentrations above 5 and 20 mM and stopped altogether at 80 and 50 mM NaF in rice and jute respectively, whereas the inhibition of seedling growth began at much lower concentrations. Of the enzymes, RNase activity was increased by fluoride, while α-amylase, protease, phytase and ATPase activities exhibited distinct inhibition from the control.
Topics: Corchorus olitorius (55%), Oryza sativa (50%)
Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: 4.0 mM F concentration was found to be most sensitive for gram seeds and germination occurred but plants were totally dried after completion of treatment period.
Abstract: The influence of 0, 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM, 4.0 mM, 8.0 mM fluoride (F) concentration on seed germination, seedling growth of gram seeds (cv. Anuradha) was studied under laboratory condition. At the end of 15 days of treatment, significant reduction in root length, shoot length, dry weight, fresh weight, % of germination, protein content, catalase activity, tolerance index, vigour index, germination rate, germination relative index, mean daily germination were observed at increasing fluoride concentration. Total soluble sugar content, proline content, peroxidase activity, ascorbic acid oxidase activity, % DFC, % phytotoxicity of root and shoot increased along with gradual increment of F concentration. 4.0 mM F concentration was found to be most sensitive for gram seeds. At 8.0 mM F concentration germination occurred but plants were totally dried after completion of treatment period.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2012-Rice Science
TL;DR: Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions and outperformed Swarna-Sub1 when the plants were cultivated under flooding.
Abstract: Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting. In contrast to irrigated condition, in rainfed lowland, direct seeding is a common practice. Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice. Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding. Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding. The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and Swarna-Sub1. Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible. Seed priming was done with water and 2% Jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaf extract, and it improved seedling establishment under flooding. Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment, which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass. Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna. Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding. Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions. Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

18 citations


Cites methods from "Effects of toxic concentrations of ..."

  • ...Then they were diluted to 25 mL and the optical density of the solution was measured at 560 nm. Amylase activity was expressed in terms of 1 µg of maltose released per min per mg protein (Sarkar et al, 1982)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The activities of starch hydrolyzing enzymes and phosphatases were studied in seedlings of three Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, namely Panikekoa & T 1471 that showed good capacity for seedling establishment under submergence (tolerant) and IR 42 which had poor under water seedlingestablishment capacity (susceptible).
Abstract: The activities of starch hydrolyzing enzymes and phosphatases were studied in seedlings of three Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, namely Panikekoa & T 1471 that showed good capacity for seedling establishment under submergence (tolerant) and IR 42 which had poor under water seedling establishment capacity (susceptible). Under submergence the total amylolytic activities were significantly higher in susceptible cultivars compared to the tolerant cultivars. Likely, the activities of α-amylase, debranching enzymes and α-glucosidase were also higher in susceptible cultivar IR 42. The activities of starch phosphorylase were comparatively higher in tolerant cultivars than susceptible cultivars. Susceptible cultivars maintained higher activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatase as well as phytase activities. Tolerant cultivars with higher seed biomass and low activity of hydrolytic enzymes might sustain the supply of food materials for longer period and hence, survived and established themselves under water.

5 citations


Cites background or methods from "Effects of toxic concentrations of ..."

  • ...Although several papers have been published about the activity of phytase under aerobic conditions (Paul et al. 1970; Sarkar et al. 1982; Loewus et al. 1990), the effects of submergence on phytase is not yet been studied....

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  • ...One gram of de-husked endosperm was extracted in 4 ml 50 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.0) and the activity was measured following the procedure of Sarkar et al. (1982)....

    [...]

  • ...Since a-amylase is stable at 70 C, the crude extract was heated to 70 C for 5 min and then assayed for a–amylase activity following the procedure total amylolytic activities (Sarkar et al. 1982)....

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Book ChapterDOI
19 Apr 2016-

References
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Book
01 Jan 1982-
TL;DR: In his Friday evening discourse at the Royal Institution on November 3, Sir Arthur Hill discussed the many ingenious devices for the protection of the seed and equally ingenious arrangements for the escape of the embryo on germination, which are found in plants.
Abstract: Provides a comprehensive overview of the physiology, biochemistry and ecology of the process of seed germination. This revised edition includes extended coverage of the influence of molecular biology on seed science and a new chapter on seed technology and propagation.

1,082 citations


Book
01 Jun 1975-
Abstract: This volume details the effects of air pollutants both individually and synergistically on the higher and lower plant groups. Discussions range from the subcellular level to entire ecosystems, and cover anatomy, pathology and biochemistry of plants in relation to air pollution. Sources and costs of air pollution are overviewed, as are the mechanisms of injury. SO/sub 2/, ozone, fluorides, PAN, nitrogen oxides and particulates are all treated in detail. Interactive and system-level effects are also discussed. There are 14 chapters for which analytics have been done.

269 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1984-
TL;DR: The nature of the pre-quiescence embryo bears very heavily on early germination behaviour and its control, and answers to questions relating to Germination behaviour are increasingly being sought during the period of seed development.
Abstract: Knowledge of the mature seed and its germination is of importance in the study of seed formation Indeed, embryogeny and germination are extensions of each other separated by a period of relative metabolic inactivity called quiescence, and are essentially different phases of the continuing process of embryo growth and development Obviously, the nature of the pre-quiescence embryo bears very heavily on early germination behaviour and its control, and answers to questions relating to germination behaviour are increasingly being sought during the period of seed development

190 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Satellites can give farmers, scientists and policy makers important knowledge of how air quality affects food security, enabling more informed decision-making to ensure access to food resources.
Abstract: As shown in an early field study in the 1970s, ozone-sensitive varieties of potatoes (left rows) show reduced growth and lower yields than ozone-tolerant varieties (right rows). While its effects are often overlooked, air pollution negatively impacts crops around the world, resulting in significant economic losses, with the greatest economic loss occurring in the United States. Satellites can give farmers, scientists and policy makers important knowledge of how air quality affects food security, enabling more informed decision-making to ensure access to food resources.

139 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1966-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: The results provide a relatively complete description of the over-all aspects of phosphorus metabolism associated with germination of oats.
Abstract: An investigation has been made of the changes in the major phosphorus containing substances in Avena sativa during the first 8 days of dark germination. The endosperm, roots, and shoots were analyzed separately for acid soluble-P, phytic acid-P, inorganic-P, lipid-P, nucleic acid-P, and protein-P. Phytic acid-P comprised 53% of the total seed phosphate, while the sum of lipid-P, nucleic acid-P and protein-P comprised 27% of the seed phosphate. All these reserve phosphate materials were mobilized and transferred to the developing axis. The phosphate from phytic acid appeared almost entirely as inorganic-P in the roots and shoots. A close stoichiometry existed between the rate of loss of nucleic acid-P from the endosperm and its rate of appearance in the roots and shoots. Thus no net synthesis of nucleic acid occurred during the 8-day period examined. The rate of synthesis of lipid-P in the roots and shoots exceeded its rate of disappearance from the endosperm during the first 4 days of germination. Protein-P increased in the roots and shoots during germination, but at a rate less than its rate of disappearance from the endosperm. The results provide a relatively complete description of the over-all aspects of phosphorus metabolism associated with germination of oats.

97 citations