Effekter av automatiserade beställningssystem i dagligvaruhandeln
01 Jan 2013-
TL;DR: Forbattringar bor dock ske i framtiden da bestallningsstrategin tidigare inte alltid stamde overrens med organisationens mal as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Syftet med denna uppsats ar att undersoka hur implementeringen av ett automatiserat bestallningssystem paverkar, dels den fysiska forstorelsen och dels arbetssattet i butikerna. Vi amnar samtidigt inspirera till vidare forskning inom omradet i allmanhet och pa butiksniva i synnerhet. Den valda metoden ar en fallstudien utifran en induktiv ansats. Fallstudien har enfallsdesign med flera analysenheter. Studien har baserats pa intervjuer, internt material och observationer. Teorierna i studien grundar sig i ERP-system, lagerhantering, automatiserade bestallningssystem, organisationsforandringar, implementering och incitament. Empirin har sin utgangspunkt i internt material samt intervjuer med nyckelpersoner inom Kristianstad-Blekinge Konsumentforening och Coop, pa central- och butiksniva. Slutsatserna ar att det ar svart att pavisa tydliga effekter pa fysisk forstorelse da fallforetaget fortfarande ar i implementeringsfasen. Forbattringar bor dock ske i framtiden da bestallningsstrategin tidigare inte alltid stamde overrens med organisationens mal. Implementeringen har medfort ett andrat arbetssatt i butik. Personalens ansvar har dock inte minskat. Inforandet av det automatiserade bestallningssystemet har resulterat i okat samarbete och storre flexibilitet vad galler bemanning.
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the impact of automatic store replenishment (ASR) on retail, taking into account financial, organizational and personnel aspects, and show that even simple automatic replenishment systems are able to dramatically reduce the average shelf out-of-stock rate and at the same time lower inventory level.
Abstract: European fast moving consumer goods retailers face a mature market with low margins and high competition. To improve their situation, retailers are looking for technologies and concepts to increase consumer satisfaction while at the same time reducing costs. One technology that promises to increase the availability of the products on the shelf while simultaneously reducing store handling costs is automatic store replenishment (ASR). At the heart of ASR systems lies software that automatically places an order to replenish stocks of a certain product. A majority of European grocery retailers have implemented such decision support systems. Yet research in this area is practically non-existent. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate the impact of this technology on retail, taking into account financial, organizational and personnel aspects. To answer this main research question, a quantitative and a qualitative methodology was chosen. First of all, based on theoretical sources and more than 50 interviews, a descriptive model and an ASR classification system is developed. Next, an explanatory model is developed with a view to enabling identification of the characteristics of products, stores and replenishment systems that influence the replenishment performance of retail stores. To be able to test the hypothesis derived from this explanatory model, exhaustive data from a grocery retailer is examined. The quantitative analysis clearly shows that even simple automatic replenishment systems are able to dramatically reduce the average shelf out-of-stock rate and at the same time lower inventory level. In addition, a major advantage of automatic systems over manual ones is that they show constant results, independently of product characteristics. Yet the analysis also shows that badly-parameterised automatic systems will fail to deliver the desired results. In order to better understand how ASR systems are best implemented in practice, four major grocery retailers are analysed in detail. These case studies illustrate the necessary technological and organizational changes and highlight the influence of ASR systems on the working behaviour of employees. Overall, this thesis makes contributions to both practice and theory. On the one hand, the results presented are a first stepping stone towards the creation of a basic theory of ASR systems. A descriptive model enables further researchers to make differentiated statements on the impact of ASR based on the classification developed. Another contribution is the explanatory model which tests existing and demonstrates new relationships hypothesised in inventory and operations management research. On the other hand, practitioners receive an overview of the
TL;DR: In this article, a scope out and summarise the contextual issues surrounding retail shrinkage in Europe's grocery sector and to offer a view on the implications of these issues to shrinkage measurement.
Abstract: Purpose – Measures and measurement systems must reflect the context to which they are applied, requiring that the contextual issues relating to retail shrinkage must be identified as a necessary precursor when measuring shrinkage. Without considering these issues any decision on which method of shrinkage measurement to employ will be uninformed, arbitrary and at best intuitive. The objective of this paper is to scope out and summarise the contextual issues surrounding retail shrinkage in Europe's grocery sector and to offer a view on the implications of these issues to shrinkage measurement. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology adopted was a scoping study of the key issues that influence shrinkage measurement, drawing these from prior research and exposing these findings to the informed opinion of a review panel for critique and to highlight areas for further investigation. Findings – The findings from the study were to identify a range of contextual issues relating to shrinkage and to summarise these issues into four categories, namely: stewardship and performance improvement; cost reduction and sales improvement; local effects of systemic issues; and the detailed nature of retailing. Practical implications – The implications of these key issues are significant to the measurement of shrinkage in terms of the scope across the business from which shrinkage needs to be considered. This finding highlights the need to consider shrinkage as a systemic issue that extends across a business from design, through planning to operational execution. It also identifies the impact of shrinkage on increasing cost and depressing sales and considers the responsibility of management teams in addressing these matters. Originality/value – This paper is theoretically original and thus of value to the academic community. It is also of value to the practitioner community in grocery retailing where shrinkage and its measurement is of worldwide strategic importance.
TL;DR: The most widely used judgmental techniques are Independent Judgment, Committee Judgment, Sales Force Estimates (also known as "Sales Force Composites"), and Juries of Executive Opinion as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Today, most companies seem to use simple methods that are easy to comprehend and mostly those that involve judgment by company employees. On the other hand, most forecast practitioners generally use forecasting methods that their decision makers feel comfortable with, even though these methods may not be the most effective ones. One method widely used results in goal-setting rather than forecasting. Here companies begin their planning process with a corporate goal to increase sales by some percentage. This target often comes down directly from senior management as an edict. Everyone then proceeds to back into their targets based on what each business unit manager thinks they can deliver. If they don't meet their prospective targeted goal when totaled, senior management either assigns individual targets to each business unit, or puts a financial plug in place hoping someone will over-deliver. UNDERLYING METHODOLOGY ASSUMPTION The basic assumption underlying the application of any forecasting method (statistical or judgmental) is that the actual outcome observed will follow some pattern associated with seasonality, trend, and/or causal relationships plus some random influences. This is algebraically written as: Actual Outcome = Pattern + Randomness. This simple equation is really saying that even when the average pattern of the underlying data has been identified, some deviation will exist between the forecast and the actual. Our purpose as practitioners is to minimize these deviations (errors) in the forecast by selecting the appropriate method As forecast practitioners we believe our primary responsibility is to provide senior management with only accurate point estimates. As such, we tend to rely on the one methodology fits all situations forecasting mentality. When in fact, we should consider ourselves business analysts who use an array of methods to predict the future depending on each individual situation. Like a medical doctor, we should carry a tool bag of generic methods, and depending on the ailment, choose the technique (tool) that best fits the situation. Unfortunately, before we can apply the tool bag approach to forecasting, we need to better understand the methods available along with their advantages and disadvantages. AVAILABLE METHODOLOGIES Most forecasting methods fall into two broad categories: those that rely on the subjective assessments of a person or group of persons are known as qualitative (also known as "Judgmental") methods; and those that rely on past sales history alone or are built on a relationship between past sales and some other variable(s) are known as quantitative (also known as "Mathematical" or Objective) methods. Although one may have a firm grasp on these two categories of methods, it is important to realize that some subjective assessment is usually involved in all types of sales forecasts. Subjectively derived forecasts use intuitive or gut feelings based on the experience and savvy of people who understand not only what is presently occurring in the marketplace but also what is likely to occur. The most widely used judgmental techniques are Independent Judgment, Committee Judgment, Sales Force Estimates (also known as "Sales Force Composites"), and Juries of Executive Opinion. Judgmental methods are often perceived as "last resort" techniques "We don't have the hard data needed to use some mathematical technique, so we are forced to make a rough estimate." Often, judgmental methods provide very accurate forecasts. The major advantages of judgmental methods are their low cost to develop (no need for expensive computer hardware/software); executives usually have a solid understanding of the broad based factors and how they affect sales demand; and sales forecasts can be developed fairly quickly. But, they are always biased toward the user group who develops them; they are "not' consistently accurate over time due to the subjective nature of development; some executives may not really understand the firm's sales situation since they are too far removed from the actual marketplace; and they are generally not well suited for firms with a large number of products (Stock Keeping Units - SKUs). …
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers) who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing and identify several areas in which retailers can improve their practices.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers) who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing and identify several areas in which retailers can improve their practices.
Abstract: This paper discusses how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting. It does so from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional context of Danish grocery retailers, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is to make store-level retail jobs interesting to the different employee types. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we identify several areas in which retailers can improve their practices.