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Journal ArticleDOI

Efficacy of cocoa pod extract as antiwrinkle gel on human skin surface.

01 Sep 2016-Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (J Cosmet Dermatol)-Vol. 15, Iss: 3, pp 283-295
TL;DR: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors, but they potentially contain antioxidant compounds, which can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients for antiwrinkles.
Abstract: Objective: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles. Methods: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition. Results: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application. Conclusion: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

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Summary

  • Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors, also known as Objective.
  • Due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease.
  • On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds.
  • Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients.
  • Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.
  • The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS).
  • Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50).
  • The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.
  • CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE, also known as Results.
  • The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell.
  • The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles.

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Efficacy of cocoa pod extract as antiwrinkle gel on human skin surface
ABSTRACT
Objective: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually
discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded
cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is
regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods
potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the
protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients.
Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for
antiwrinkles. Methods: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened
using liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to
determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the
cells (EC50). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form
using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition. Results: CPE was
detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin,
and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The
EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated
into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while
being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to
reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel
within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin
hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application. Conclusion:
Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The
CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of
application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged
application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.
Keyword: Antiwrinkles; Cell culture; Cocoa pod extracts; Efficacy; Formulation; Functional
cosmetics
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors highlight the value that can be added to this industrial co-product to generate new pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceuticals or functional food products, which is the main byproduct from the coca industry constituting 67-76% of the cocoa fruit weight.
Abstract: Background Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) is the main by-product from the coca industry constituting 67–76% of the cocoa fruit weight. This waste represents an important, and challenging, economic, environmental renewable opportunity, since ten tons of wet CPH are generated for each ton of dry cocoa beans. Scope and approach This review highlights the value that can be added to this industrial co-product to generate new pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceuticals or functional food products. Key findings and conclusions The quality and functionality of cocoa pod husk (CPH) has being improving through processing (fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis, and combustion, among others), guiding to their use as source of volatile fragrance compounds, lipase extraction, skin whitening, skin hydration and sun screening, ruminants’ food, vegetable gum, organic potash, antibacterial and nanoparticles synthesis with antioxidant and larvicidal activities. However, their exploration to produce high-value-added products, specially for the food industry, is limited as well as their potential health benefits. Cocoa pod husk, the main by-product from cacao industry (up to 76%), is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable source of bioactive compounds like dietary fiber, pectin, antioxidant compounds, minerals and theobromine, justifying their valorization. This review highlights the value addition that can be achieved with this valuable industrial co-product to generate new pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceuticals or functional food products.

130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main byproduct of the cocoa harvest, the pod husk (CPH), is used for animal feed, as a starting material for soap making and activated carbon.
Abstract: Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is the main by-product (ca. 70–75% weight of whole fruit) of the cocoa harvest, an important and economic crop in developing countries. It is a rich source of minerals (particularly potassium), fibre (including lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) and antioxidants (e.g. phenolic acids). An existing practise is the return of CPH to soil with potential benefits (or disadvantages) for cocoa productivity and soil sustainability that have not been fully characterised. Currently, alternative low-value applications of CPH include its use as animal feed, as a starting material for soap making and activated carbon. Other biotechnological valorisation potentials for CPH and its fractions include the production of bio-fuels and their incorporation in food systems. Physical, chemical or biological pre-treatment approaches are needed in order to achieve desirable fractions in a cost-effective and sustainable manner for novel applications in food and non-food sectors.

79 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this study, some examples of active ingredients or raw materials used in cosmetics/personal care/biomedical products that are coming from either through biotechnological systems, or as byproducts of several industries are reviewed.
Abstract: A global tendency for products considered environmentally sustainable, and ecologically obtained led the industry related to personal care formulations to fund the research and the development of personal care/cosmetics containing ingredients from natural resources. Furthermore, consumers are aware of environmental and sustainability issueans, thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. In this study we review some examples of active ingredients or raw materials used in cosmetics/personal care/biomedical products that are coming from either through biotechnological systems, or as byproducts of several industries. A skin formulation containing biosynthetic actives, prepared by us and the study regarding its dermocosmetic properties are also described. The need for the standardization processes, the safety assessment tools, the improvement of the exploitation methods of these renewable sources in order the production to be ecologically and economically better are also discussed.

27 citations


Cites background from "Efficacy of cocoa pod extract as an..."

  • ...Consequently, Cocoa pod extracts can be included in anti-wrinkle products with significant results in skin after prolonged application and save the plantation floors from the harmful pods [4]....

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  • ...There are cases that the waste materials can cause problems when discarded [4]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review summarizes successful CBS and CPH polyphenol extraction processes that make use of the above-mentioned emerging methods, in particular the circular economy and industry 4.0, can help sustainability to be achieved in the cocoa industry.
Abstract: The ever-growing cocoa-product market has driven the cocoa industry to massive levels of production, thus causing excessive waste and by-product generation. Cocoa bean shells (CBS) and pod husks (CPH) are the main cocoa-industry by-products that possess substantial amounts of high added-value compounds. Polyphenols may be the most interesting compounds because of their widely known beneficial effects on human health. Over last decade, both science and industry have focused on finding new cost-effective technologies for phytochemical recovery that are able to lower extraction times, energy consumption and environmental impact. Ultrasound, microwave, pulsed electric field, and subcritical and supercritical fluid are some of these technologies. This review summarizes successful CBS and CPH polyphenol extraction processes that make use of the above-mentioned emerging methods. Moreover, the integration of novel business paradigms, in particular the circular economy and industry 4.0, can help sustainability to be achieved in the cocoa industry. Industrial relevance text Industrial cocoa by-products have become a massive burden since their inadequate disposal leads to a series of environmental issues. Value-added compounds recovery from CBS and CPH by means of enabling technologies assistance can lead to significant economic and environmental advantages. This approach, coherent with circular economy paradigm, can be integrated with a design of Industry 4.0 driving the development of new products and businesses.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2020-Heliyon
TL;DR: The establishment of reliable, practical, and objective ripeness indicators for each cocoa clone will allow more homogenous cocoa pods to be selected for fermentation, which will ultimately contribute to improved quality and homogeneity of cocoa and its derived products.

14 citations

References
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TL;DR: The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined and rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in selected herbs.
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TL;DR: This chapter describes selected assays for the evaluation of cellular viability and proliferation of cell cultures using the formation of the omnipresent reducing agents NADH and NADPH as a marker for metabolic activity in the following assays.
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TL;DR: White tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities, was found in the panel of twenty three plant extracts, which exhibited high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities.
Abstract: Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82.05%) and rose aqueous (73.86%). From a panel of twenty three plant extracts, some one dozen exhibit high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities, with nine having inhibitory activity against both enzymes. These included white tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities.

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Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "Efficacy of cocoa pod extract as antiwrinkle gel on human skin surface" ?

Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6. 38 ± 1. 23 % with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further ( 12. 39 ± 1. 59 % ) after 5 weeks.