scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Efficient four fragment cloning for the construction of vectors for targeted gene replacement in filamentous fungi

01 Aug 2008-BMC Molecular Biology (BioMed Central)-Vol. 9, Iss: 1, pp 70-70

TL;DR: The new vectors designed for USER Friendly cloning provided a fast reliable method to construct vectors for targeted gene manipulations in fungi.

AbstractThe rapid increase in whole genome fungal sequence information allows large scale functional analyses of target genes. Efficient transformation methods to obtain site-directed gene replacement, targeted over-expression by promoter replacement, in-frame epitope tagging or fusion of coding sequences with fluorescent markers such as GFP are essential for this process. Construction of vectors for these experiments depends on the directional cloning of two homologous recombination sequences on each side of a selection marker gene. Here, we present a USER Friendly cloning based technique that allows single step cloning of the two required homologous recombination sequences into different sites of a recipient vector. The advantages are: A simple experimental design, free choice of target sequence, few procedures and user convenience. The vectors are intented for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and protoplast based transformation technologies. The system has been tested by the construction of vectors for targeted replacement of 17 genes and overexpression of 12 genes in Fusarium graminearum. The results show that four fragment vectors can be constructed in a single cloning step with an average efficiency of 84% for gene replacement and 80% for targeted overexpression. The new vectors designed for USER Friendly cloning provided a fast reliable method to construct vectors for targeted gene manipulations in fungi.

Topics: Vector (molecular biology) (55%), Cloning (51%), Gene targeting (50%), Marker gene (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis, and that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer.
Abstract: Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens.

395 citations


Cites methods from "Efficient four fragment cloning for..."

  • ...dahliae were generated by cloning of the Ave1 flanking sequences in pRF-HU2 (51)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that extensive chromosomal rearrangements in the strictly asexual plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae establish highly dynamic lineage-specific genomic regions that act as a source for genetic variation to mediate aggressiveness.
Abstract: Sexual recombination drives genetic diversity in eukaryotic genomes and fosters adaptation to novel environmental challenges. Although strictly asexual microorganisms are often considered as evolutionary dead ends, they comprise many devastating plant pathogens. Presently, it remains unknown how such asexual pathogens generate the genetic variation that is required for quick adaptation and evolution in the arms race with their hosts. Here, we show that extensive chromosomal rearrangements in the strictly asexual plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae establish highly dynamic lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions that act as a source for genetic variation to mediate aggressiveness. We show that such LS regions are greatly enriched for in planta-expressed effector genes encoding secreted proteins that enable host colonization. The LS regions occur at the flanks of chromosomal breakpoints and are enriched for retrotransposons and other repetitive sequence elements. Our results suggest that asexual pathogens may evolve by prompting chromosomal rearrangements, enabling rapid development of novel effector genes. Likely, chromosomal reshuffling can act as a general mechanism for adaptation in asexually propagating organisms.

254 citations


Cites methods from "Efficient four fragment cloning for..."

  • ...PCR products were subsequently cloned into pRF-HU2 (Frandsen et al. 2008)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.
Abstract: Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.

176 citations


Cites background or methods from "Efficient four fragment cloning for..."

  • ...The two flanking fragments were introduced into pRFHU2 following the USER protocol described by [87] and the resulting plasmid was introduced into E....

    [...]

  • ...This plasmid derives from plasmid pRFHU2 [87] and contains the flanking regions of the two genes surrounding the hygromycin resistant cassette in the T-DNA region of the plasmid....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Putative virulence factors in P. expansum were identified by means of a transcriptomic analysis of apple fruits during the course of infection and it was demonstrated that neither patulin nor citrinin are required by P. expandum to successfully infect apples.
Abstract: The relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. The genus Penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. The genomes of three Penicillium expansum strains, the main postharvest pathogen of pome fruit, and one Pencillium italicum strain, a postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit, were sequenced and compared with 24 other fungal species. A genomic analysis of gene clusters responsible for the production of secondary metabolites was performed. Putative virulence factors in P. expansum were identified by means of a transcriptomic analysis of apple fruits during the course of infection. Despite a major genome contraction, P. expansum is the Penicillium species with the largest potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Results using knockout mutants clearly demonstrated that neither patulin nor citrinin are required by P. expansum to successfully infect apples. Li et al. ( MPMI-12-14-0398-FI ) reported similar results and conclusions in their recently accepted paper.

152 citations


Cites methods from "Efficient four fragment cloning for..."

  • ...Both DNA fragments, corresponding to promoter and terminator regions, and the digested pRFHU2 vector (Frandsen et al. 2008) were mixed together and were treated with the USER enzyme (New England Biolabs) to obtain plasmids pRFHU2-patK, pRFHU2-patL, pRFHU2-patN, and pRFHU2-pksCT....

    [...]


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter presents a general protocol for converting any vector into a USER-compatible vector, together with protocols for both USER cloning and USER fusion.
Abstract: The explosive development of the field of molecular biology has led to the need for simpler and more efficient cloning techniques. These requirements are elegantly met by the ligation-free cloning technique called USER cloning. USER cloning is suitable not only for everyday and high-throughput cloning but also for the one-step construction of complex DNA constructs, which can be achieved in a variant called USER fusion. In this chapter, we present a general protocol for converting any vector into a USER-compatible vector, together with protocols for both USER cloning and USER fusion.

150 citations


Cites background from "Efficient four fragment cloning for..."

  • ...the number of nts lying between the restriction and nicking site may be increased and/or varied, which might be beneficial when having more than one USER cassette in a single vector and attempting simultaneous PCR product insertion into the different sites (13)....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These procedures, which can circumvent the need for large-scale phage or plasmid growths, preparative gel-electrophoresis and the screening of molecular clones, can facilitate the rapid study of sequence-specific interactions of proteins and DNA.
Abstract: Specific, end-labeled DNA fragments can be simply and rapidly prepared using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Such fragments are suitable for use in DNase I protection footprint assays, chemical sequencing reactions, and for the production and analysis of paused RNA polymerase transcription complexes. Moreover, a general means of introducing a specific mutation at any position along the length of such PCR-generated fragments is described. These procedures, which can circumvent the need for large-scale phage or plasmid growths, preparative gel-electrophoresis and the screening of molecular clones, can facilitate the rapid study of sequence-specific interactions of proteins and DNA. A rapid means of removing excess oligonucleotide primers from completed PCRs is also described.

2,427 citations


"Efficient four fragment cloning for..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Several laboratories have solved this problem by dividing the replacement constructs into two, a technique known as bipartite gene-targeting or split-marker recombination [6- 8]. In this technique, the two HRS's are fused with two thirds of either the 3' or 5'end of the selection marker gene, by fusion-PCR [ 9 ]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Questions are addressed, including which evolutionary pressures led to gene clustering, why closely related species produce different profiles of secondary metabolites, and whether fungal genomics will accelerate the discovery of new pharmacologically active natural products.
Abstract: Much of natural product chemistry concerns a group of compounds known as secondary metabolites. These low-molecular-weight metabolites often have potent physiological activities. Digitalis, morphine and quinine are plant secondary metabolites, whereas penicillin, cephalosporin, ergotrate and the statins are equally well known fungal secondary metabolites. Although chemically diverse, all secondary metabolites are produced by a few common biosynthetic pathways, often in conjunction with morphological development. Recent advances in molecular biology, bioinformatics and comparative genomics have revealed that the genes encoding specific fungal secondary metabolites are clustered and often located near telomeres. In this review, we address some important questions, including which evolutionary pressures led to gene clustering, why closely related species produce different profiles of secondary metabolites, and whether fungal genomics will accelerate the discovery of new pharmacologically active natural products.

1,316 citations


"Efficient four fragment cloning for..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The use of Proofreading DNA polymerase is essential when making targeted genome modifications in fungi, due to the close spacing of fungal genes [26], which often means that the HRS extends into neighbouring genes or their regulatory sequences....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new procedure has been developed for the efficient cloning of complex PCR mixtures, resulting in libraries exclusively consisting of recombinant clones, and the procedure is applied for the cloning of inter-ALU fragments from hybrid cell-lines and human cosmid clones.
Abstract: A new procedure has been developed for the efficient cloning of complex PCR mixtures, resulting in libraries exclusively consisting of recombinant clones. Recombinants are generated between PCR products and a PCR-amplified plasmid vector. The procedure does not require the use of restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase or alkaline phosphatase. The 5'-ends of the primers used to generate the cloneable PCR fragments contain an additional 12 nucleotide (nt) sequence lacking dCMP. As a result, the amplification products include 12-nt sequences lacking dGMP at their 3'-ends. The 3'-terminal sequence can be removed by the action of the (3'----5') exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase in the presence of dGTP, leading to fragments with 5'-extending single-stranded (ss) tails of a defined sequence and length. Similarly, the entire plasmid vector is amplified with primers homologous to sequences in the multiple cloning site. The vector oligos have additional 12-nt tails complementary to the tails used for fragment amplification, permitting the creation of ss-ends with T4 DNA polymerase in the presence of dCTP. Circularization can occur between vector molecules and PCR fragments as mediated by the 12-nt cohesive ends, but not in mixtures lacking insert fragments. The resulting circular recombinant molecules do not require in vitro ligation for efficient bacterial transformation. We have applied the procedure for the cloning of inter-ALU fragments from hybrid cell-lines and human cosmid clones.

1,107 citations


"Efficient four fragment cloning for..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Examples are the Xi-cloning, InFusion cloning, Ligase independent cloning (LIC-PCR), Recombinational cloning and USER Friendly cloning techniques [16-20]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study describes a method for rapidly creating knockout mutants in which it makes use of yeast recombinational cloning, Neurospora mutant strains deficient in nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair, custom-written software tools, and robotics.
Abstract: The low rate of homologous recombination exhibited by wild-type strains of filamentous fungi has hindered development of high-throughput gene knockout procedures for this group of organisms. In this study, we describe a method for rapidly creating knockout mutants in which we make use of yeast recombinational cloning, Neurospora mutant strains deficient in nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair, custom-written software tools, and robotics. To illustrate our approach, we have created strains bearing deletions of 103 Neurospora genes encoding transcription factors. Characterization of strains during growth and both asexual and sexual development revealed phenotypes for 43% of the deletion mutants, with more than half of these strains possessing multiple defects. Overall, the methodology, which achieves high-throughput gene disruption at an efficiency >90% in this filamentous fungus, promises to be applicable to other eukaryotic organisms that have a low frequency of homologous recombination.

999 citations


"Efficient four fragment cloning for..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...crassa, Colot and coworks [1], also allows for efficient four fragment cloning....

    [...]

  • ...Contrary to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where 30 bp is sufficient, many filamentous fungi require longer HRS [1], eg Fusarium graminearum needs 400 bp [2] 1500 bp is reported for Aspergillus niger [3] and around 1000 bp for Neurospora crassa [4]....

    [...]

  • ...Vector construction for targeted replacement of genes is reduced to design of two primer pairs, which will permit automation of the experimental design as required for high-throughput knockout projects [1]....

    [...]

  • ...Recombinational cloning of the two required HRS with a selection marker gene and a vector backbone is carried out in yeast, followed by PCR amplification of the two HRS and selection marker gene [1]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported that A. tumefaciens can also transfer its T-DNA efficiently to the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori, demonstrating DNA transfer between a prokaryote and a filamentous fungi.
Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers part of its Ti plasmid, the T-DNA, to plant cells during tumorigenesis. It is routinely used for the genetic modification of a wide range of plant species. We report that A. tumefaciens can also transfer its T-DNA efficiently to the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori, demonstrating DNA transfer between a prokaryote and a filamentous fungus. We transformed both protoplasts and conidia with frequencies that were improved up to 600-fold as compared with conventional techniques for transformation of A. awamori protoplasts. The majority of the A. awamori transformants contained a single T-DNA copy randomly integrated at a chromosomal locus. The T-DNA integrated into the A. awamori genome in a manner similar to that described for plants. We also transformed a variety of other filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus niger, Fusarium venenatum, Trichoderma reesei, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Neurospora crassa, and the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, demonstrating that transformation using A. tumefaciens is generally applicable to filamentous fungi.

853 citations


"Efficient four fragment cloning for..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) technology [10] has the advantage of being independent of protoplast formation and can be used directly on a wide variety of fungal species and tissue types [11]....

    [...]