scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Efficient medium arbitration of FSAN-compliant GPONs

01 Jun 2006-International Journal of Communication Systems (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 19, Iss: 5, pp 603-617

TL;DR: A MAC protocol designed to serve any mix of services according to their quality of service (QoS) needs, employing four priority levels along with a high number of logically separate data queues is presented.
Abstract: SUMMARY The steadily rising demand for multimedia and data services, the falling cost and omnipresence of Ethernet and the maturity of passive optical networks (PON) technology, promise to radically change the landscape in the local loop. The heart of a gigabit PON system (recently standardized by FSAN/ITU) is the medium access controller (MAC), which arbitrates access to the upstream link among users with fluctuating traffic demands and effects the multiplexing and concentration policy. At the same time, it has to safeguard the service quality and enforce the parameters agreed in the service level agreements (SLAs) between the users and the service provider. In this paper, a MAC protocol designed to serve any mix of services according to their quality of service (QoS) needs, employing four priority levels along with a high number of logically separate data queues is presented. The architecture and implementation in hardware of a MAC algorithm capable of allocating bandwidth down to a resolution of a byte with QoS differentiation is the focus of this paper. It employs the bandwidth arbitration tools of the FSAN/ITU G.984.3 standard and maps SLA parameters to GPON service parameters to create an efficient, fair and flexible residential access system. Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Topics: Dynamic bandwidth allocation (61%), Quality of service (56%), Data as a service (54%), Service provider (54%), Ethernet (52%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2013-Etri Journal
TL;DR: This paper proposes an efficient bandwidth utilization (EBU) algorithm that utilizes the unused bandwidth in dynamic bandwidth allocation of a 10‐gigabit‐capable passive optical network (XGPON) and shows that EBU improves performance compared to that achieved with existing methods.
Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient bandwidth utilization (EBU) algorithm that utilizes the unused bandwidth in dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network (XGPON). In EBU, an available byte counter of a queue can be negative and the unused remainder of an available byte counter can be utilized by the other queues. In addition, EBU uses a novel polling scheme to collect the requests of queues as soon as possible. We show through analysis and simulations that EBU improves performance compared to that achieved with existing methods. In addition, we describe the hardware implementation of EBU. Finally we show the test results of the hardware implementation of EBU.

47 citations


Cites background or methods from "Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..."

  • ...In addition, the frame size follows the trimodal distribution in which the frame sizes are 64, 500, and 1,500 bytes and their load fractions are 60%, 20%, and 20%, respectively, as in [10]....

    [...]

  • ...The GigaPON access network (GIANT) algorithm was the first DBA algorithm to be compliant with the GPON standard [10], [11]....

    [...]

  • ...To the best of our knowledge, only the IACG and GIANT algorithms have been physically implemented [10], [13]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Man-Soo Han1, Hark Yoo, Bin-Young Yoon, Bong-Tae Kim  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Using computer simulations with the self-similar traffic model, it is shown that the IACG method dramatically outperforms the GIANT MAC method in mean delay and frame-loss rate.
Abstract: We suggest an immediate allocation with colorless grant (IACG) method for dynamic bandwidth allocation of a gigabit passive optical network (GPON) system. The suggested method is based on the GigaPON Access Network (GIANT) media access control (MAC) method. The IACG method can assign the transmission bandwidth regardless of the value of a scheduling counter, whereas the GIANT MAC method can assign the transmission bandwidth only when the scheduling counter has a value of 1. Also, unlike the GIANT MAC method, the IACG method utilizes the unallocated remainder of the transmission bandwidth. At the end of scheduling, the IACG MAC method assigns the unallocated remainder to each optical network unit (ONU) with an equal share. Using computer simulations with the self-similar traffic model, we show that the IACG method dramatically outperforms the GIANT MAC method in mean delay and frame-loss rate.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper introduces a novel framework for dynamic bandwidth assignment (DBA) in gigabit passive optical networks (GPONs) employing the Offset-Based Scheduling with Flexible Intervals (OSFI) concept in order to achieve distribution of bandwidth in such networks ensuring not only high system utilization but also clean-cut quality of service (QoS) differentiation based on the individual demands of user services. In addition, ways to enhance efficiency in the case of next generation long-reach GPONs are discussed. A thorough description of the proposed mechanisms is provided, while the improved system performance is verified using simulations.

36 citations


Cites background from "Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..."

  • ...of ONUs in a periodic basis, while the selection of these periods (scheduling intervals) is either assumed to be done offline (thus being fixed for the lifetime of each queue [10], [11],...

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Xiuchao Wu1, Kenneth N. Brown1, Cormac J. Sreenan1, Pedro Alvarez2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
05 Mar 2013-
TL;DR: The aim is to provide a standards-compliant, configurable, and extensible module that can simulate XG-PON with reasonable speed and can support a wide range of research topics.
Abstract: 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON), one of the latest standards of optical access networks, is regarded as one of the key technologies for future Internet access networks. In this paper, we propose and discuss the design and implementation of an XG-PON module for the NS-3 network simulator. The aim is to provide a standards-compliant, configurable, and extensible module that can simulate XG-PON with reasonable speed and can support a wide range of research topics. These include analysing and improving the performance of XG-PON, studying the interactions between XG-PON and the upper-layer protocols, and investigating its integration with various wireless networks.

32 citations


Cites background from "Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..."

  • ...Indeed, it has been a very hot topic to study DBA algorithms for EPON and GPON [12][15][22]....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Amr Elrasad1, Nima Afraz1, Marco Ruffini1Institutions (1)
19 Mar 2017-
TL;DR: This work proposes a virtual-DBA architecture enabling true PON multi-tenancy, giving Virtual Network Operators full control over capacity assignment algorithms, and achieves virtualization enabling efficient capacity sharing without increasing scheduling delay compared to traditional PONs.
Abstract: We propose a virtual-DBA architecture enabling true PON multi-tenancy, giving Virtual Network Operators full control over capacity assignment algorithms. We achieve virtualization enabling efficient capacity sharing without increasing scheduling delay compared to traditional (non-virtualized) PONs.

28 citations


Cites methods from "Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..."

  • ...The number of VNOs was set to two with equal number of ONUs and both employ GIANT [10] as vDBA with three T-CONTs, namely: assured, non-assured and best effort....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ethernet passive optical networks are described, an emerging local subscriber access architecture that combines low-cost point-to-multipoint fiber infrastructure with Ethernet, which has emerged as a potential optimized architecture for fiber to the building and Fiber to the home.
Abstract: This article describes Ethernet passive optical networks, an emerging local subscriber access architecture that combines low-cost point-to-multipoint fiber infrastructure with Ethernet. EPONs are designed to carry Ethernet frames at standard Ethernet rates. An EPON uses a single trunk fiber that extends from a central office to a passive optical splitter, which then fans out to multiple optical drop fibers connected to subscriber nodes. Other than the end terminating equipment, no component in the network requires electrical power, hence the term passive. Local carriers have long been interested in passive optical networks for the benefits they offer: minimal fiber infrastructure and no powering requirement in the outside plant. With Ethernet now emerging as the protocol of choice for carrying IP traffic in metro and access networks, EPON has emerged as a potential optimized architecture for fiber to the building and fiber to the home.

702 citations


"Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The protocol overhead introduced by ATM for segmenting and transporting large variable-length IP packets into fixed-size 53-byte cells is considered an increased waste of resources (also called ‘cell tax’) and can reach levels above 10% [3]....

    [...]

  • ...APONs present the following disadvantages compared to Ethernet PONs (EPONs): higher protocol overhead, lower bandwidth, increased costs and not straightforward integration of LANs into future optical Ethernet-based WANs [3, 4]....

    [...]

  • ...The overall efficiency of EPON is also considered higher compared to APON not only because of the higher bit rate (1Gb/s versus 155/622Mb/s) but most important because ATM did not live up to its promise of becoming an inexpensive technology, whereas the large numbers of Ethernet component and system vendors and manufacturing volumes make economics more favourable and integration of LANs transparent for Ethernet-based WANs [5]....

    [...]


Book ChapterDOI
K. G. Coffman1, Andrew Odlyzko1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2002-
Abstract: Internet traffic is approximately doubling each year. This growth rate applies not only to the entire Internet, but to a large range of individual institutions. For a few places we have records going back several years that exhibit this regular rate of growth. Even when there are no obvious bottlenecks, traffic tends not to grow much faster. This reflects complicated interactions of technology, economics, and sociology, similar to, but more delicate than those that have produced "Moore's Law" in semiconductors.A doubling of traffic each year represents extremely fast growth, much faster than the increases in other communication services. If it continues, data traffic will surpass voice traffic around the year 2002. However, this rate of growth is slower than the frequently heard claims of a doubling of traffic every three or four months. Such spectacular growth rates apparently did prevail over a two-year period 1995-6. Ever since, though, growth appears to have reverted to the Internet's historical pattern of a single doubling each year.Progress in transmission technology appears sufficient to double network capacity each year for about the next decade. However, traffic growth faster than a tripling each year could probably not be sustained for more than a few years. Since computing and storage capacities will also be growing, as predicted by the versions of "Moore's Law" appropriate for those technologies, we can expect demand for data transmission to continue increasing. A doubling in Internet traffic each year appears a likely outcome.If Internet traffic continues to double each year, we will have yet another form of "Moore's Law." Such a growth rate would have several important implications. In the intermediate run, there would be neither a clear "bandwidth glut" nor a "bandwidth scarcity," but a more balanced situation, with supply and demand growing at comparable rates. Also, computer and network architectures would be strongly affected, since most data would stay local. Programs such as Napster would play an increasingly important role. Transmission would likely continue to be dominated by file transfers, not by real time streaming media.

140 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John D. Angelopoulos1, Helen C. Leligou1, T. Argyriou1, S. Zontos1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: The article presents an Ethernet gigabit PON (GPON) system aligned with the philosophy of the evolving FSAN (full service access network) ITU-T specification, which focuses on the efficient support of any level of quality of service.
Abstract: The standardization of passive optical networks capable of transporting Ethernet frames at gigabit-per-second speeds, currently in progress in both ITU-T and IEEE, constitutes a major milestone toward cost-effective photonization of the last (aka first) mile. The article presents an Ethernet gigabit PON (GPON) system aligned with the philosophy of the evolving FSAN (full service access network) ITU-T specification, which focuses on the efficient support of any level of quality of service. The intelligence of this system, in terms of traffic quality guarantees, lies in the MAC protocol, which controls the distributed multiplexing/concentration function by allocating variable length slots to every user of the shared upstream (toward the network) medium. The way transport of information is organized in an ITU-T GPON system and the operation of a MAC protocol that preserves all QoS guarantees are presented and evaluated.

129 citations


"Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The MAC controller as implemented in hardware for the demonstrator of the IST-GIANT project [7, 11, 12] is described in Section 4 while the performance of the MAC protocol is assessed in Section 5....

    [...]

  • ...The algorithm used by the MAC controller presented in this paper has been initially outlined in Reference [10] and is presented in Section 2 in a rigorous manner, probing further on system level design and hardware/software partitioning issues....

    [...]

  • ...To this end, the MAC protocol as executor of the TDMA multiplexing in the upstream of the PON is of prime importance for cost effectiveness, fairness, traffic profile control and QoS guarantees [7, 8]....

    [...]

  • ...(Further simulation results investigating a large number of operational conditions are presented in Reference [10].)...

    [...]

  • ...It adopts fixed periodic framing accommodating TDM and ATM needs, so that services with very strict requirements can be serviced at the right moment, temporarily interrupting data packets, hence the need for fragmentation [7]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Kyeong Soo Kim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Passive Optical Network (PON)-based Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) is a promising solution that can break through the economic barrier of traditional point-to-point solutions. Once fibers are deployed with PON-based FTTH solutions, it becomes critical how to migrate to Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)-PON because Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) used in current PON solutions cannot exploit the huge bandwidth of the optical fibers and therefore will not be able to meet ever-increasing demands for higher bandwidth by future network applications. In this paper we review and compare the current PON-based FTTH solutions, ATM-PON (APON) and Ethernet PON (EPON), and provide a possible evolution scenario to future WDMPON.

100 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
T. Monath1, N. Kristian, Philip Cadro, Dimitris Katsianis  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: This article presents a comprehensive techno-economic evaluation of two upgrade strategy cases for broadband IP services for residential and business customers, and illustrates their respective merits and pitfalls, allowing the definition of a reasonable investment policy.
Abstract: This article presents a comprehensive techno-economic evaluation of two upgrade strategy cases for broadband IP services for residential and business customers, and illustrates their respective merits and pitfalls, allowing the definition of a reasonable investment policy. The work should enable establishment of guidelines for broadband infrastructure upgrade strategies from the incumbent operator's view. Following the definition of appropriate service sets, and taking into account demand scenarios established within the project, this work has been focused on developing a techno-economic model, based on the TONIC tool. Tariff structures have been applied to compute the key economic indicators, net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period. This investment analysis was carried using the tool, which was developed by IST-TONIC. The results show that the choice of technology (Ethernet or ATM) has almost no effect on the cost level and profitability of the cases. For the suburban area, a fiber to the cabinet solution is too expensive due to heavy infrastructure investments; for dense urban and urban areas the FTTC solution is worth the investments. The FTTH/office deployment scenario is only profitable in dense urban areas (>5000 potential customers/km/sup 2/) and already highly risky in the urban area.

79 citations


"Efficient medium arbitration of FSA..." refers background in this paper

  • ...APONs present the following disadvantages compared to Ethernet PONs (EPONs): higher protocol overhead, lower bandwidth, increased costs and not straightforward integration of LANs into future optical Ethernet-based WANs [3, 4]....

    [...]

  • ...The overall efficiency of EPON is also considered higher compared to APON not only because of the higher bit rate (1Gb/s versus 155/622Mb/s) but most important because ATM did not live up to its promise of becoming an inexpensive technology, whereas the large numbers of Ethernet component and system vendors and manufacturing volumes make economics more favourable and integration of LANs transparent for Ethernet-based WANs [5]....

    [...]


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20211
20207
20194
20188
20177
20164