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Eimeria from bats of Bolivia: two new species from vespertilionid bats.

01 Jun 1999-Journal of Parasitology (J Parasitol)-Vol. 85, Iss: 3, pp 504-507

TL;DR: Between 1985 and 1987, fecal samples were collected from 71 bats representing 14 species (Desmodontidae, Molossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae) from 8 localities in 3 states in Bolivia, South America, and 2 black myotid bats, Myotis nigricans and Uroderma magnirostrum, had oocysts in their feces that represent undescribed species of Eimeria.
Abstract: Between 1985 and 1987, fecal samples were collected from 71 bats representing 14 species (Desmodontidae, Mo- lossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae) from 8 localities in 3 states (Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz) in Bolivia, South America. Of these, 2 black myotid bats (Vespertilionidae), Myotis nigricans, and 1 tent-making bat (Phyllostomidae), Uroderma magnirostrum, had oocysts in their feces that represent undescribed species of Eimeria. The new species from M. nigricans (2/ 4, 50%) has sporulated oocysts that are subspheroidal, 18.9 X 16.9 (17-23 x 14-20) pLm, without a micropyle; oocyst residuum of 6-8 spheroidal globules and 1 highly refractile polar granule are present. The oocyst wall has 2 layers (-1.3 pIm thick), with a rough outer layer. Ovoidal sporocysts are 10.1 x 7.4 (7-14 X 5-10) ILm, with a Stieda body, substieda body, and a sporocyst residuum. The new eimerian species from U. magnirostrum (1/2, 50%) has sporulated oocysts that are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 23.8 X 20.8 (20-26 x 19-24) ILm, without micropyle or oocyst residuum, but 1-3 polar granules are present. The oocyst wall has 2 layers (-1.5 p.m thick), with a rough, mammilated outer layer. Ovoidal sporocysts are 11.6 X 8.6 (10-12 X 7-10) pim, with a Stieda body, substieda body and a sporocyst residuum. The occurrence of eimerian infections in bats may be lower than their occurrence in other mammalian orders. In their re- view of the Eimeria spp. from bats, Scott and Duszynski (1997) listed only 17 valid species and an average prevalence of <10% in all surveys conducted to date. However, as more bat species are examined for coccidia, it is possible that the paucity of Eimeria species found in bats actually may be due to a previous lack of searching for them. In this paper, we describe 2 new
Topics: Stieda body (58%), Eimeria (53%), Myotis nigricans (50%)

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Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter
Laboratory of Parasitology
Parasitology, Harold W. Manter Laboratory of
1999
Eimeria from Bats of Bolivia: Two New Species from Eimeria from Bats of Bolivia: Two New Species from
Vespertilionid Bats Vespertilionid Bats
Donald W. Duszynski
University of New Mexico
, eimeria@unm.edu
Damien T. Scott
University of New Mexico
Xiaomin Zhao
University of New Mexico
Follow this and additional works at: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/parasitologyfacpubs
Part of the Parasitology Commons
Duszynski, Donald W.; Scott, Damien T.; and Zhao, Xiaomin, "Eimeria from Bats of Bolivia: Two New
Species from Vespertilionid Bats" (1999).
Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of
Parasitology
. 153.
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/parasitologyfacpubs/153
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J.
Parasitol.,
85(3),
1999
p.
504-507
?
American
Society
of
Parasitologists
1999
EIMERIA
FROM
BATS
OF
BOLIVIA:
TWO NEW
SPECIES
FROM
VESPERTILIONID
BATS
Donald W.
Duszynski,
Damien
T.
Scott,
and
Xiaomin
Zhao
Department
of
Biology,
The
University
of
New
Mexico,
Albuquerque,
New
Mexico
87131
ABSTRACT:
Between
1985 and
1987,
fecal
samples
were
collected
from 71
bats
representing
14
species
(Desmodontidae,
Mo-
lossidae,
Noctilionidae,
Phyllostomidae,
Vespertilionidae)
from
8
localities in
3
states
(Beni,
Pando,
Santa
Cruz)
in
Bolivia,
South
America.
Of
these,
2
black
myotid
bats
(Vespertilionidae),
Myotis
nigricans,
and
1
tent-making
bat
(Phyllostomidae),
Uroderma
magnirostrum,
had
oocysts
in
their
feces that
represent
undescribed
species
of
Eimeria. The
new
species
from
M.
nigricans
(2/
4,
50%)
has
sporulated
oocysts
that are
subspheroidal,
18.9
X
16.9
(17-23
x
14-20)
pLm,
without a
micropyle;
oocyst
residuum
of 6-8
spheroidal
globules
and
1
highly
refractile
polar
granule
are
present.
The
oocyst
wall
has 2
layers
(-1.3
pIm
thick),
with
a
rough
outer
layer.
Ovoidal
sporocysts
are 10.1
x
7.4
(7-14
X
5-10)
ILm,
with
a
Stieda
body,
substieda
body,
and a
sporocyst
residuum. The
new eimerian
species
from
U.
magnirostrum
(1/2, 50%)
has
sporulated
oocysts
that are
subspheroidal
to
ellipsoidal,
23.8
X
20.8
(20-26
x
19-24)
ILm,
without
micropyle
or
oocyst
residuum,
but
1-3
polar
granules
are
present.
The
oocyst
wall
has
2
layers
(-1.5
p.m
thick),
with a
rough,
mammilated
outer
layer.
Ovoidal
sporocysts
are
11.6
X
8.6
(10-12
X
7-10)
pim,
with
a Stieda
body,
substieda
body
and a
sporocyst
residuum.
The
occurrence of
eimerian infections in
bats
may
be
lower
than
their
occurrence in
other
mammalian
orders. In
their re-
view of the
Eimeria
spp.
from
bats,
Scott and
Duszynski
(1997)
listed
only
17 valid
species
and an
average
prevalence
of
<10%
in
all
surveys
conducted to
date.
However,
as more
bat
species
are
examined for
coccidia,
it
is
possible
that the
paucity
of
Eimeria
species
found in
bats
actually
may
be
due to a
previous
lack of
searching
for
them. In
this
paper,
we
describe 2 new
Received
23
July
1998;
revised
16 November
1998;
accepted
16 No-
vember
1998.
eimerian
species
from
Bolivian
bats
and
discuss
some of
the
factors
that
may
influence
the
prevalence
of
eimerian
infections
in
this
host
order
(Chiroptera).
MATERIALS AND
METHODS
The
hosts
were
collected
with
mist nets
from
1985 to
1987 as
part
of a
long-term
survey
of
Bolivian
mammals.
Feces
were
taken
directly
from
the
intestines of all
the
bats that
were
collected as
voucher
spec-
imens,
which
are
deposited
in
the
Museum
of
Southwestern
Biology
(MSB),
the
University
of
New
Mexico
(UNM).
General
procedures
for
preserving
fecal
material
and
measuring
and
photographing oocysts
were
described
earlier
(Duszynski
and
Wilber,
1997); however,
because
TABLE I.
Bats collected
from 8 localities in
3 states in
Bolivia,
South
America,
and
examined for
Coccidia.
Host
family/
No.
hosts
infected/
genus
species
State:
locality
no.
examined
(%)
Desmodontidae
Desmodus rotundus
Santa Cruz:
Buena Vista
0/1
Beni:
Estacion
Biologia
del Beni
0/2
Molossidae
Molossus ater
Santa
Cruz: Caranda
0/1
Molossus
molossus
Santa
Cruz: Buena Vista
0/22
Santa Cruz:
Caranda
0/16
Noctilionidae
Noctilio
albiventris
Pando:
Independencia
0/1
Beni:
Rio
Tijamuchi
0/1
Phyllostomidae
Artibeus cinereus
Santa Cruz: Buena
Vista
0/1
Artibeus
lituratus
Santa
Cruz: Zoo
0/3
Carollia
perspicillata
Santa
Cruz: Buena Vista
0/1
Santa Cruz: Caranda
0/7
Chiroderma
villosum
Pando:
Independencia
0/2
Phyllostomus
hastatus
Beni:
Rio Matos
0/2
Uroderma
magnirostrum
Santa Cruz: San Ramon
1/1
Santa Cruz: Zoo
0/1
Vampyrops
liaeatus
Santa Cruz: Zoo
0/2
Vampyrum spectrum
Beni: Rio
Tijamuchi
0/2
Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus
intermedius
Santa Cruz: Caranda
0/1
Myotis
nigricans
Santa Cruz:
Buena
Vista
2/3
(67)
Santa Cruz: Zoo
0/1
5
Families,
14
species
3
States,
8 localities
3/71
(4)
504

DUSZYNSKI
ET AL.-EIMERIA
SPP. FROM BATS OF BOLIVIA
505
FIGURES
1-6.
Photomicrographs
of
sporulated oocysts
of Eimeria
magnirostrumi
from
Uroderma
magnirostrum
(1-3)
and of
Eimeria
nigricani
from
Myotis
nigricans
(4-6),
both
from
Santa
Cruz, Bolivia,
South America. Scale bar
=
10
p.m.
1. Note distinct mammilated outer
surface. 2.
Note Stieda
and substieda bodies. 3.
Note striated
appearance
of
oocyst
wall(s)
in
optical
cross section
and
sporocyst
residuum. 4. Note
sporocyst
residuum and
refractile
body
in
sporozoite.
5. Note
oocyst
residuum and
refractile
polar granule.
6.
Note
Stieda and substieda
bodies and
oocyst
wall,
which is thinner
than that of E.
magnirostrumi
and does
not
give
striated
appearance
in
optical
cross section.
Abbreviations:
pg, polar
granule;
r,
refractile
body
of
sporozoite;
sb,
Stieda
body;
ssb,
substieda
body;
sr,
sporocyst
residuum.
the
oocysts
were collected
and measured
prior
to that
publication,
not
all
recommendations
outlined
by
Duszynski
and Wilber
(1997)
could
be
met.
Oocysts
were 235-500
days
old when
measured. All measure-
ments
are
in p.m with the mean
in
parentheses
following
the size
ranges.
Photosyntypes
(see
Bandoni
and
Duszynski,
1988;
Duszynski
et
al.,
1999)
of
sporulated
oocysts
were
deposited
into the
U.S.
National Par-
asite Collection
(USNPC),
Beltsville,
Maryland.
Symbiotype
hosts
(Frey
et
al.,
1992)
are
maintained
in
the Division of
Mammals, MSB,
UNM.
RESULTS
Of
the 71 bats
examined for
coccidia,
3
(4%)
had eimerian
oocysts
in their
feces,
including
2 of 4
Myotis nigricans
(Ves-
pertilionidae)
and
1 of 2
Uroderma
magnirostrum
(Phyllostom-
idae) (Table
I).
Eimeria
magnirostrumi
n.
sp.
(Figs.
1-3,
7)
Diagnosis: Oocyst
wall -1.5
thick,
consisting
of
2
layers:
outer,
yellowish-brown,
uniformly
mammilated,
-2/3
of total
thickness,
gives
a striated
appearance
in
optical
cross
section; inner, smooth;
oocyst
residuum
and
micropyle
absent,
but 1-3
polar granules present
(-2.3
in
diameter);
sporulated oocysts
(n
=
56)
subspheroidal,
20-26
X
19-
24
(23.8
X
20.8),
with L:W
ratio 1.0-1.4
(1.1);
sporocysts
(n
=
56)
ovoidal,
10-12
X
7-10
(11.6
X
8.6),
with L:W
ratio 1.1-1.8
(1.4);
Stieda
body
(-1.3 wide)
and substieda
body
(-2.6 wide)
prominent,
but
parastieda body
absent.
Sporocyst
residuum
dispersed
in
center of
sporocysts, composed
of
spheroid
globules; sporozoites
with 1
large,
posterior
refractile
body.
Taxonomic
summary
Symbiotype
host: Uroderma
magnirostrum
(Davis, 1968).
Type locality:
Bolivia,
Santa
Cruz,
10 km north
of San
Ramon,
16?36'S,
62?42'W.
Prevalence: One of
2
(50%).
Site
of infection:
Unknown,
oocysts
collected from feces.
Material
deposited:
Photosyntypes
in
the
USNPC,
no. 88104.
Sym-
biotype,
U.
magnirostrum,
MSB
55908
(NK
12988,
8
August
1985).
Etymology:
The nomen triviale is
derived from the
specific epithet
of the host
name,
in the
genitive
singular ending, meaning
"of
magni-
rostrum."
Remarks
Eimeria
magnirostrumi
is most similar to Eimeria
macyi
Wheat,
1975
from
Pipistrellus
sublavus from
Alabama,
USA
(Wheat,
1975)
in that
they
both have a
rough
outer
wall,
have Stieda and substieda
bodies,
and lack an
oocyst
residuum.
They
differ because E.
magnirostrumi
(1)

506
THE
JOURNAL OF
PARASITOLOGY,
VOL.
85,
NO.
3,
JUNE 1999
FIGURES
7,
8. Line
drawings
of
sporulated
oocysts
of
Eimeria
mag-
nirostrumi
and
Eimeria
nigricani,
respectively.
Scale bar
=
10
JLm.
has
a thicker wall
than
E.
macyi
(1.5
vs.
1), (2)
has 2 wall
layers
(vs.
1),
(3)
is somewhat
larger
than
E.
macyi
(24
X
21
vs.
19
X
18),
and
(4)
has a substieda
body
that is 2X wider than its
Stieda
body,
whereas
both
structures
in
E.
macyi
are of
equal
width
(fig.
1 in
Wheat,
1975).
Eimeria
nigricani
n.
sp.
(Figs.
4-6,
8)
Diagnosis: Oocyst
wall 1.0-1.4
(-1.3)
thick,
consisting
of 2
layers:
outer,
brownish,
rough,
-2/3
of total
thickness,
but does not
appear
stri-
ated
in
optical
cross
section; inner,
smooth;
micropyle
absent;
oocyst
residuum
of 6-8
spheroidal globules dispersed throughout oocyst
and
1
highly
refractile
polar granule present; sporulated oocysts
(n
=
91)
spheroidal,
17-23
X
14-20
(18.9
X
16.9),
with L:W ratio
1.0-1.3
(1.1);
sporocysts
(n
=
91)
ovoidal,
7-14 X
5-10
(10.1
X
7.4),
with L:W
ratio
1.0-2.1
(1.4);
Stieda
body
(-1.5)
and a faint
substieda
body
(-3
wide,
flat
on the
bottom)
present,
but
parastieda
body
absent.
Sporocyst
re-
siduum
a mass of
3-4
round
globules
(-1.0
in
diameter);
sporozoites
with
1 or 2
prominent
refractile bodies.
Taxonomic
summary
Symbiotype
host:
Myotis nigricans
(Schinz,
1821).
Type locality:
Bolivia,
Santa
Cruz,
4.0 km
south of Buena
Vista,
17?28'S,
63?42'W.
Prevalence: Two
of 4
(50%).
Site
of infection:
Unknown.
Oocysts
collected
from feces.
Material
deposited:
Photosyntypes
in
the
USNPC,
no.
88105.
Sym-
biotype,
M.
nigricans,
MSB
58759
(NK
15201,
2
August
1987).
Etymology:
The nomen
triviale is
derived from
the
specific
epithet
of
the host
name,
in
the
genitive
singular ending,
meaning
"of
nigri-
cans.
"
Remarks
The
presence
of a
rough
outer wall
and Stieda and
substieda
bodies
make
sporulated
oocysts
of
E.
nigricani
similar to those of E.
magni-
rostrumi and
E.
macyi.
However,
those of
E.
nigricani
differ from
E.
magnirostrumi
by having
smaller
oocysts
(19
X
17 vs. 24
X
21)
with
a
rough
but not
distinctly
mammilated
outer
wall,
by having
an
oocyst
residuum of
dispersed
globules, by
having sporozoites
with 2
refractile
bodies
(vs. 1),
and a substieda
body
that is
somewhat
larger
(3.0
vs.
2.6)
and
flat,
rather
than
rounded,
at
the bottom.
They
differ from
those
of
E.
macyi
in
more subtle
ways:
by
the
presence
of a
2-layered
outer
wall
(vs.
1),
the
presence
of an
oocyst
residuum,
and
by having
a sub-
stieda
body
that
is
2X
wider
than the Stieda
body
(vs.
1
that is not
wider than
the Stieda
body
and rounded on
the
bottom).
DISCUSSION
As more bat
Eimeria
spp.
are found and
described,
we
should
be able to
make more
reasonable
predictions
concerning
the
factors that
contribute to the
prevalence
of
Eimeria
spp.
in bats.
Scott
and
Duszynski
(1997)
suggested
that colonial
bats that
roost in
stable microclimates
may
be
more
likely
to be
infected
with Eimeria
spp.
Female
tent-building
bats,
like
U.
magniros-
trum,
will
roost
in
groups
of
20-40
individuals;
however,
males
roost either
singly
or in
smaller
groups
than the
females
(No-
wak,
1994).
Thus,
females
should be more
likely
to be
infected
by parasites
with direct life
cycles
like the
coccidia. The tent-
making
bat that
was infected in
this
study
was a
female,
but
our
sample
size
(n
=
2)
is too small to
support any
prediction.
If
colonial bats
actually
have a
greater
prevalence
of Eimeria
spp.,
then we
might
expect
free-tailed bats
(Molossidae)
such
as
Tadarida and Molossus
spp.,
which form
large
colonies,
to
be more
heavily
infected
then noncolonial
forms.
However,
Scott and
Duszynski
(1997)
found no
Eimeria
spp.
in
20 Mex-
ican
free-tailed bats
(T.
brasiliensis)
they
examined,
nor
did we
find
any
in the
39 Molossus
spp. caught
in
this
study,
both sexes
of
which were
roosting together
when
captured.
In
this
paper,
we
described 2 new
eimerian
species
with
spor-
ulated
oocysts
that are
morphologically
similar to
each
other,
to those of
E.
macyi,
and to
those of
4
other
described Eimeria
spp.
from
bats
(Eimeria
eumops,
Eimeria
tadarida,
Eimeria to-
mopea,
Eimeria
redukeri;
see Scott and
Duszynski
[1997]
for
review).
Thus,
7 of the
19
(37%)
eimerian
species
described to
date
from bats from
around the world
share these
structural
features:
spheroidal-subspheroidal
shape;
thick,
highly sculp-
tured
outer wall without a
micropyle,
1-3
polar
granules,
ovoi-
dal
sporocysts
with
Stidea
body
and a
sporocyst
residuum. This
strong
structural
similarity may suggest
that
the eimerian
par-

DUSZYNSKI
ET
AL.-EIMERIA
SPP.
FROM
BATS OF
BOLIVIA
507
asites in
bats are
highly
conserved,
that these
species
may
share
an
ancient
ancestry,
or that
this
particular
structural
arrange-
ment
may
provide
some
selective
advantage
to the
species
that
possess
it,
or
both.
Light
microscopy
and
photomicroscopy
are
the most
com-
mon
tools that
the
practitioner
uses for
observing
species
dif-
ference
between or
among
sporulated oocysts
of
coccidia.
Giv-
en
the
structural
similarity
exhibited
by many
of
the
sporulated
oocysts
of
bats,
as noted
here,
molecular
techniques
or
trans-
mission
electron
microscopy eventually
may
be
required
to
dis-
tinguish
definitively
between
some of
these
morphologically
similar
Eimeria
spp.
However,
because
light
microscopy
is still
the most
practical
and
efficient
way
to
observe
and
describe
eimerian
species,
the
guidelines
set forth
by Duszynski
and
Wil-
ber
(1997)
should be
followed,
whenever
possible,
to
make it
easier for
others
to
compare
species
information.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We
are
grateful
to the
many
mammalogy
and
parasitology
students and
faculty,
who
worked
long
hours
in the
field to
collect
hosts and save
their
feces for
our
work,
to
J. A.
Hnida
for
reviewing
earlier
drafts of the
manuscript,
and
to
Lynn
Her-
tel
for
the
line
drawings.
We
also
thank
P.
Stidstone
who
screened
the
fecal
samples
and
measured
the
oocysts.
This
work
was
supported,
in
part, by
NSF
BSR-8408923
to
T.
L.
Yates
and
a
PEET
grant,
DEB-9521687,
to
D.W.D.
LITERATURE
CITED
BANDONI, S.,
AND
D. W.
DUSZYNSKI.
1988.
A
plea
for
improved
presen-
tation of
type
material
for
coccidia.
Journal
of
Parasitology
74:
519-523.
DUSZYNSKI,
D.
W.,
D.
T
SCOTT,
J.
ARAGON,
A.
LEACH,
AND
T. PERRY.
1999.
Six
new
Eimeria
species
from
vespertilionid
bats of
North
America.
Journal
of
Parasitology
85:
496-503.
,
AND
P. G.
WILBER.
1997. A
guideline
for
the
preparation
of
species
descriptions
in
the
Eimeriidae.
Journal
of
Parasitology
83:
333-336.
FREY,
J.
K.,
T
L.
YATES,
D.
W.
DUSZYNSKI,
W.
L.
GANNON,
AND
S.
L.
GARDNER.
1992.
Designation
and
curatorial
management
of
type
host
specimens
(symbiotypes)
for
new
parasite
species.
Journal
of
Parasitology
78:
930-932.
NOWAK,
R.
M.
1994.
Walker's
bats
of
the
world.
The
John
Hopkins
Press, Ltd.,
London,
U.K.,
287
p.
SCOTT,
D.
T.,
AND
D.
W.
DUSZYNSKI.
1997.
Eimeria
from
bats of
the
world:
two
new
species
from
Myotis
spp.
(Chiroptera:
Vesperti-
lionidae).
Journal
of
Parasitology
83:
495-501.
WHEAT,
B. E.
1975.
Eimeria
macyi
sp.
n.
(Protozoa:
Eimeriidae)
from
the
Eastern
pipistrelle, Pipistrellus
subflavus,
from
Alabama.
Jour-
nal
of
Parasitology
61:
920-922.
Citations
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Donald W. Duszynski1Institutions (1)
03 Jan 2002
Abstract: 1

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Twenty species of bats (Molossidae, Vespertilionidae) were collected from California, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Baja California Norte (Mexico), and 29 of 404 (7%) animals were infected with Eimeria spp.
Abstract: Twenty species of bats (Molossidae, Vespertilionidae) were collected from California, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Baja California Norte (Mexico), and 29 of 404 (7%) animals, including Antrozous pallidus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis auriculus, Myotis californicus, Myotis ciliolabrum, Myotis evotis, Myotis lucifugus, Myotis thysanodes, Myotis vivesi, Myotis volans, Myotis yumanensis, and Nycticeius humeralis were infected with Eimeria spp., which represent 6 new species. Sporulated oocysts of a new species from A. pallidus are subspheroidal, 24.8 x 21.6 (22-27 x 19-24) microm with a polar granule and a large globular residuum. The oocyst wall is sculptured, with 2 layers, approximately 1.5 thick. Ovoidal sporocysts are 11.5 x 7.8 (9-13 x 7-10) microm, with Stieda body and residuum of many large granules. Sporulated oocysts of a new species from M. californicus are subspheroidal, 20.7 x 18.2 (19-23 x 16-20) microm, with 1-7 tiny polar granules, but without oocyst residuum. The oocyst wall is rough, with 2 layers, approximately 1.4 thick. Ovoidal sporocysts are 11.2 x 7.3 (10-12 x 7-8) microm, with Stieda body and a globular residuum. Sporulated oocysts of a second new species from M. californicus are subspheroidal, 23.1 x 20.7 (20-26 x 19-23) microm, with residuum and 1 polar granule, but a micropyle is absent. The oocyst wall is rough with 2 layers, approximately 1.5 thick. Ovoidal sporocysts are 12.5 x 7.2 (11-14 x 7-8) microm, with a Stieda body and residuum. Sporulated oocysts of a new species from M. ciliolabrum are subspheroidal, 24.9 x 20.1 (18-27 x 17-23) microm, with 1-2 polar granules, but without micropyle and residuum. The oocyst wall is rough with 2 layers, approximately 1.5 thick. Ellipsoidal sporocysts are 12.5 x 9.0 (8-14 x 7-10) microm, with Stieda and substieda bodies and residuum. Sporulated oocysts of a new species from M. evotis are subspheroidal, 21.3 x 18.6 (20-24 x 15-20) microm, with a prominent polar granule, but without micropyle and residuum. The oocyst wall is smooth with 2 layers, approximately 1.0 thick. Ovoidal sporocysts are 12.2 x 8.0 (11-13 x 7.5-9) microm, with Stieda and substieda bodies and residuum. Sporulated oocysts of the new species from N. humeralis are subspheroidal, 22.4 x 18 (21-24 x 17-20) microm, with 1-3 polar granules, but residuum and micropyle are absent. The oocyst wall is lightly sculptured with 2 layers, approximately 1.4 thick. Ovoidal sporocysts are 10.9 x 7.7 (9-12 x 6-8) microm, with Stieda body and residuum. Sporulated oocysts of E. pilarensis Scott and Duszynski, 1997 and those of at least 12 other morphological forms were seen in the other infected bats; these latter forms were seen in too few numbers to be adequately described as new species.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sporocyst residuum consisted of 10, to several dozen, homogeneous granules of various sizes loosely clustered among the sporozoites, which were elongate and without obvious refractile bodies and nucleus.
Abstract: During August 2003 and August 2004, 11 adult eastern red bats, Lasiurus borealis, were collected and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Bats were obtained in August 2003 from Garland, Montgomery, and Yell counties, Arkansas (n = 6) and in August 2004 from Anson and Montgomery counties, North Carolina (n = 5). Seven (63.6%) of the bats were passing oocysts of 2 undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria dowleri n. sp. were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 24.7 × 22.0 (23–26 × 20–23) µm, with a bilayered wall, externally moderately pitted, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.4 × 9.2 (12–14 × 8–9) µm; shape index was 1.5; Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present. A sporocyst residuum consisting of homogeneous granules was scattered among the sporozoites; sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and an elongate posterior refractile bo...

11 citations


Cites background from "Eimeria from bats of Bolivia: two n..."

  • ...Sporulated oocysts of E. sealanderi resemble those of 2 other eimerians from bats described by Scott and Duszynski (1997) and Duszynski et al. (1999) that are similar in size and shape and that share other morphological similarities....

    [...]


01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: The sporocyst residuum consisted of 10, to several dozen, homogeneous granules of various sizes loosely clustered among the sporozoites, which were elongate and without obvious refractile bodies and nucleus.
Abstract: During August 2003 and August 2004, 11 adult eastern red bats, Lasiurus borealis, were collected and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Bats were obtained in August 2003 from Garland, Montgomery, and Yell counties, Arkansas (n = 6) and in August 2004 from Anson and Montgomery counties, North Carolina (n = 5). Seven (63.6%) of the bats were passing oocysts of 2 undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria dowleri n. sp. were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 24.7 X 22.0 (23-26 X 20-23) urn, with a bilayered wall, externally moderately pitted, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.4 X 9.2 (12-14 X 8-9) urn; shape index was 1.5; Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present. A sporocyst residuum consisting of homogeneous granules was scattered among the sporozoites; sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and an elongate posterior refractile body; a nucleus was not discernable. Oocysts of Eimeria sealanderi n. sp. were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 16.7 X 14.4 (15-18 X 13-16) urn, with a bilayered wall, externally lightly pitted, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle was absent, but the oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Oocyst residuum consisted of a single, membrane-bound homogenous granule. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 8.9 X 5.7 (8-10 X 5-6) um, with a shape index of 1.6; Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present. The sporocyst residuum consisted of 10, to several dozen, homogeneous granules of various sizes loosely clustered among the sporozoites, which were elongate and without obvious refractile bodies and nucleus. This is the first time any coccidian has been reported from this host and the first instance of a bat coccidian reported from North Carolina. Despite being the second largest group of mammals, next to rodents, very little is known about the coccidia of bats (Chirop tera). Duszynski (2002) provided a taxonomic summary on the coccidian parasites of bats of the world. Of the 31 named species of Eimeria known from the Chiroptera, only 9 (29%) have been described from North America. Duszynski (2002) further suggested that there are at least 1,800 more species, or about 1.6% of the total

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), is reported from the bat host Myotis riparius Handley from Ilha Grande, a large island off the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil.
Abstract: A new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), is reported from the bat host Myotis riparius Handley from Ilha Grande, a large island off the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. Bats were captured in 13 mist nets (10 × 3 m), which were set within the experimental plots, and through active searches of the daytime roosts of Molossus molossus Pallas found in Vila Dois Rios. Containment was made in bags for the collection of feces and identification of coccidia. A survey was conducted on the coccidia species described so far (Table 2). The oocysts of Eimeria riparii n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal with an extremely thin, bi-layered wall, slightly rough. Two polar granules are present, micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal, the sporocyst residuum is formed by sparse, rounded granules of varying sizes; the Stieda body is trapezoidal and a sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are banana shaped. With the new species described here, a total of 40 Eimeria spp. have been described infecting bat hosts, belonging to 30 species of 18 genera and 5 families. The subsequent increase in the known diversity of bats has been derived from the ongoing expansion of research in a number of different areas of taxonomy and ecology although the number of studies of the associated coccidian parasites of the family Eimeriidae has increased more slowly.

References
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Book
01 Dec 1994
TL;DR: A single large segment of that encyclopedic work-the section on Chiroptera, or bats- is available in paperback as a separate volume, making a significant portion of that work accessible to a new audience.
Abstract: From the African long-tongued fruit bat to the wrinkle-faced bat of Mexico and Central America, Walker's Bats of the World is an astonishingly complete guide to this fascinating, beneficial, and varied order of mammals. It includes scientific and common names, as well as the number and distribution of species, measurements and physical traits, habitat, daily and seasonal activity, population dynamics, home range, social life, reproduction, and longevity. Textual summaries present accurate, well-documented descriptions of the physical characteristics and living habits of bats in every part of the world. Endangered species and those having singular economic importance are given particular attention. Through five highly praised editions Walker's Mammals of the World has remained the most comprehensive-the preeminent-reference work on mammals. Now for the first time a single large segment of that encyclopedic work-the section on Chiroptera, or bats-is available in paperback as a separate volume. Lavishly illustrated with pictures by noted wildlife photographers, the book includes photographs of many rarely seen bats. As in the complete Walker's Mammals, most photographic illustrations depictlive animals rather than skins or skeletons. Since publication of the first edition in 1964, Walker's Mammals of the World has become a favorite guide to the natural world for general readers and an invaluable reference for professionals. Now Walker's Bats makes a significant portion of that work accessible to a new audience

440 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes a specific set of guidelines for the preparation of species descriptions of coccidia based predominently on the structure of the sporulated oocyst, and emphasizes that ancillary data be incorporated whenever possible with the species description.
Abstract: Members of the suborder Eimeriina (phylum Apicomplexa: class Sporozoea: order Eucoccidiorida) have complex 1 or 2 host life cycles that involve endogenous development in the tissues of vertebrates or invertebrates and exogenous development in an oocyst, usually outside the host(s). Because tissue stages are logistically difficult or even impossible to obtain in natural (wild) host-parasite systems, the vast majority (> 98%) of species in this parasite complex are known only from the structure of their sporulated oocyst. Unfortunately, the quality of these species descriptions is uneven because no guidelines are available for workers in the field to follow. Here we propose a specific set of guidelines for the preparation of species descriptions of coccidia based predominently on the structure of the sporulated oocyst, because the oocyst is the most readily available stage in the life cycle. In addition, we emphasize that ancillary data be incorporated whenever possible with the species description; these data may include, but are not limited to, ecological parameters, prevalence, seasonal data, and the deposition of both host symbiotypes and parasite hepantotypes (= phototypes) into accredited musecums so that accurate identification of both host and parasite material can be assured in perpetuity. And finally, if oocysts are collected in pure suspension, that is, if only one coccidian species (morphotype) is present in the sample, then some oocysts should be saved in 70% ethanol and archived in an accredited museum in the event that future workers might wish to amplify and, later, sequence the parasite's DNA.

375 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is recommended that the host from which the type of a new parasite species is described should be designated as a symbiotype, and data on the type (of the parasite) should include the collection locality.

81 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Those interested in the taxonomy of coccidia are reminded of an already established method for preserving oocysts in resin and the standardization of a photographic procedure through which type specimens of cocCidia oocyst might also be submitted to and maintained in accredited museums are suggested.
Abstract: The "true" coccidia (phylum Apicomplexa, suborder Eimeriina) constitute a large and heterogeneous group of parasitic protozoa. Despite the large number of described species (ca. 1,650) and the medical and veterinary importance of some (e.g., Toxoplasma), 2 facts are clear: (1) the majority of coccidia species are probably yet undescribed, and (2) the phylogenetic relationships of those described species are poorly known. Contributing to the latter dilemma is the lack of a tradition to provide type specimens by those who describe new species, even though the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature specifically recommends the designation of a type specimen with the description of a new species. With the publication of a new edition of the Code (1985), explicit provisions are made for the unique concerns of taxonomists working with Protozoa. Here we remind those interested in the taxonomy of coccidia of an already established method for preserving oocysts in resin and, as an alternative, suggest the standardization of a photographic procedure through which type specimens of coccidia oocysts might also be submitted to and maintained in accredited museums. Thus, coccidia taxonomists should no longer have an excuse for their failure to designate types.

80 citations


01 Jan 1992
Abstract: The accurate identification of a host organism is an important component in the taxonomic recognition of a new species of parasite. Correct identification, curatorial management, and safekeeping of the host specimen from which a parasite type specimen is collected is also desirable. We recommend that the host from which the type of a new parasite species is described should be designated as a symbiotype. It has become increasinglyclear that the current global rate of biological extinction far exceeds what would be expected by chance alone (Anonymous, 1989). This realization has triggered an international effort to measure more accurately the actual rate of extinction and to determine whether anything can be done to counter the trend. One of the startling discoveries of this effort is that our knowledge of one of the most basic variables needed to solve the equation, i.e., how many kinds of extant organisms exist and where they occur, either is understood poorly or is totally lacking, even for relatively well known regions such as North America. As a result, there is an urgent call for a substantial increase in survey and inventory research (Yates and Estes, 1992). Usually, during field collections of plants or animals, standard voucher specimens are prepared and sent to appropriate museums and, in the past, these have been used primarily for morphological studies. However, in recent years, a wide array of collateral material such as karyotypes, frozen tissues for genetic analyses, and detailed ecological data, now commonly are preserved for each organism that is collected. One of the goals of diversity studies is to document the occurrence ofsymbiotic associates; therefore, parasites also are collected routinely from voucher organisms. A result of our increased awareness and interest in diversity is that the collection of specimens, and their collateral material, has preceded the development of standardized procedures and policies designed to facilitate management of this "data trail" between the final repositories of both hosts and their parasites. In certain cases, increased activity in field collections and studies of biological diversity have fostered corresponding increases in the descriptions of new taxa of parasites (Schmidt, 1974; Levine, 1988). Museums that house voucher specimens of hosts have had to compensate for this increased activity. A particularly difficult problem involves specimens used in the formal designation of species. The "type" provides a standard reference for determining the application ofa scientific name (Articles 61a and 72g of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN] [Ride et aI., 1985]). Usually, the nominal taxon is based on a holotype, an original single specimen, or 1 specimen that has been singled out of a type series (remaining individuals of the series are called paratypes). In type series where no holotype has been designated (syntypes), a lectotype (the remaining being 930 called paralectotypes) may be designated, or, in exceptional circumstances where no holotype, lectotype, or syntype exists due to loss or destruction, a new specimen may be designated the neotype. The importance of these specimens cannot be overstated. The type is objective and unchanging, whereas the taxon limits are subjective and subject to change (Ride et aI., 1985). The type, therefore, is a taxonomic tool and provides a referencepoint for changes in taxonomy (Wiley, 1981). Only by reference to the type can doubt as to the identity of a nominal species be resolved (Mayr, 1969). The designation of types in taxa of parasites follows the standard conventions used for other taxa in zoology. This is true even for taxa such as the coccidia, which have historically suffered problems because of poor preservation and hence the designation of a type (Bandoni and Duszynski, 1988). However, parasites present an additional component, namely, the parasite is associated intimately with its host taxon. Therefore, data on the type (of the parasite) should include the collection locality (recommendation 72h of the ICZN [Ride et aI., 1985]), which is the collection locality of the individual host from which the type specimen was obtained. Mayr and Ashlock (1991) pointed out that the range of the host often takes the place of the geographic range of the parasite. The type locality of a parasite is, therefore, essentially the host and the collection locality of the host from which the parasite was collected. Thus, when new parasite species are described, not only is a type for the parasite designated, but information on the host specimen from which the parasite was taken also is recorded (e.g., Duszynski et aI., 1982, 1988). The host species is generally referred to as the "type host" in parasitological literature (e.g., Ride et aI., 1985; Gardner and Schmidt, 1986). Patterns of host-parasite relationships revealed by studies of phyletic coevolution may indicate strict cospeciation between the 2 symbionts, colonization of the host by the parasite (host switching or phenomene de capture, see Chabaud [1957]), or both colonization and cospeciation (Brooks, 1985; Gardner, 1991). In the case of strict coevolution between the host and parasite taxa, the evolution of the parasite is linked to the evolution and, hence, taxonomy of the host. Thus, studies of host-parasite coevolution absolutely require that the host be identified accurately as conclusions relative to processes of coevolution are meaningless if the hosts are incorrectly identified. Additionally, Lynch (1989) suggestedthat sympatric speciation may be more common than previously thought. Host switching has been postulated to be an important prerequisite to sympatric speciation in parasites (Bush, 1975). Patterns of host-switching would remain undetected if hosts were incorrectly identified and described in the beginning. Many parasites (e.g., coccidia) are thought to exhibit a relatively high degree of host specificity. Taxonomic changes in the host group would require that the host specimen from which the parasite taxon was described be examined to refer the parasite accurately to the correct host taxon. In addition, different species of parasites may parasitize sibling species of hosts (Mayr, 1963). For example, 2 sibling species of Octopus were distinguished when it was discovered that individuals of the 2 species were parasitized by different species of mesozoan parasites (Pickford and McConnaughey, 1949). Detection of these morphologically cryptic host species is increasing rapidly as modem molecular methods are applied to systematic problems, and even in relatively well studied areas new taxa are being discovered at a high rate (e.g., Modi and Lee, 1984; Sullivan et aI., 1986). Subspecies is likely the taxonomic category most susceptible to changes in such instances. Because many parasites form host races (Bush, 1969), it is essential to retain the host from which a parasite was described to assure that it will be assigned accurately to the correct host taxon. Bacterial, viral, protozoan, insect, and helminth parasites are of major economic importance in issues of human health, veterinary medicine, and wildlife conservation. Wild animal reservoirs of zoonotic diseases are important not only in developing regions of the world (e.g., Chagas disease and leishmaniasis in South America) but in industrialized countries as well (e.g., alveolar hydatid disease in Switzerland and Australia and Lyme disease and babesiosis in the U.S.A.). Only through accurate documentation of the species of host from which a parasite is obtained can an understanding of its evolution, natural history, and zoonotic potential be gained. Correct identification and safekeeping of the individual host from which a new species of parasite is described are extremely important. Scott and Hillis (1989: 569) noted the "importance of depositing voucher specimens of parasitological hosts and subjects of physiological studies in institutional museum collections" when they corrected the identification of a host from which a new trematode taxon had been described previously. Article 72g of the ICZN (Ride et aI., 1985: 147) states that types "are held in trust for science by all zoologists and by persons responsible for their safe keeping" and provides several recommendations for their preservation. In accordance, the Museum of Southwestern Biology, The University of New Mexico, has developed a method for curating zoological type host specimens. We make the following recommendations for designating and curating zoological host specimens, which largely follow Mayr and Ashlock's (1991) suggestions for curating type specimens as well as recommendations of the ICZN (Ride et aI., 1985). 1) A single host specimen from which the type of a new parasite species (or subspecies) is described should be referred to as a symbiotype from the Greek "symbio-" meaning to live together. 2) A symbiotype should be designated and preserved for every new parasite species (or subspecies) described. In some circumstances it is not possible to preserve the symbiotype as a standard museum voucher specimen (e.g., host is not killed, host is too large). In these cases, the host could be documented and archived through photographs and/or tissue samples that can be utilized in genetic analyses (see specific recommendations regarding tissue samples and photographs [Dessauer et aI., 1990]). CRITICAL COMMENT 931 3) Symbiotypes should be deposited in lending collections of public or private institutions where they will receive perpetual care (yates et aI., 1987). Because museum personnel may not be exposed to parasitologicalliterature on a regular basis, parasitologists should alert museum personnel as to any symbiotype held in the collection. 4) Ideally, symbiotypes might be removed from the general collection and housed in a separate location (type case), though this may not always be possible. If space for a type c

80 citations