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Journal ArticleDOI

Electrical Energy Storage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices

18 Nov 2011-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 334, Iss: 6058, pp 928-935

TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Topics: Grid energy storage (67%), Intermittent energy source (65%), Energy storage (63%), Battery (electricity) (59%), Photovoltaic system (55%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2015-Nature Chemistry
TL;DR: The notion of sustainability is introduced through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability.
Abstract: Energy storage using batteries offers a solution to the intermittent nature of energy production from renewable sources; however, such technology must be sustainable. This Review discusses battery development from a sustainability perspective, considering the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries and the design of new systems beyond Li-ion. Images: batteries, car, globe: © iStock/Thinkstock.

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Dingchang Lin1, Yayuan Liu1, Yi Cui1, Yi Cui2Institutions (2)
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jean-Marie Tarascon1, Michel Armand2Institutions (2)
15 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: A brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries is presented, ongoing research strategies are highlighted, and the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems are discussed.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Michel Armand1, Jean-Marie Tarascon1Institutions (1)
06 Feb 2008-Nature
TL;DR: Researchers must find a sustainable way of providing the power their modern lifestyles demand to ensure the continued existence of clean energy sources.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Patrice Simon1, Patrice Simon2, Yury Gogotsi3Institutions (3)
01 Nov 2008-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This work has shown that combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2005-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoeLECTrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors and the advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices.
Abstract: New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.

7,703 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John B. Goodenough1, Youngsik Kim1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles are reviewed. Most important is safety, which requires development of a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent (or additive) that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery. A high Li-ion conductivity (σ Li > 10 ―4 S/cm) in the electrolyte and across the electrode/ electrolyte interface is needed for a power battery. Important also is an increase in the density of the stored energy, which is the product of the voltage and capacity of reversible Li insertion/extraction into/from the electrodes. It will be difficult to design a better anode than carbon, but carbon requires formation of an SEI layer, which involves an irreversible capacity loss. The design of a cathode composed of environmentally benign, low-cost materials that has its electrochemical potential μ C well-matched to the HOMO of the electrolyte and allows access to two Li atoms per transition-metal cation would increase the energy density, but it is a daunting challenge. Two redox couples can be accessed where the cation redox couples are "pinned" at the top of the O 2p bands, but to take advantage of this possibility, it must be realized in a framework structure that can accept more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation. Moreover, such a situation represents an intrinsic voltage limit of the cathode, and matching this limit to the HOMO of the electrolyte requires the ability to tune the intrinsic voltage limit. Finally, the chemical compatibility in the battery must allow a long service life.

7,138 citations


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Performance
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