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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00604-021-04762-9

Electrochemical immunosensor with Cu 2 O nanocube coating for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

02 Mar 2021-Mikrochimica Acta (Springer Vienna)-Vol. 188, Iss: 3, pp 105-105
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic starting in 2020. Accordingly, testing is crucial for mitigating the economic and public health effects. In order to facilitate point-of-care diagnosis, this study aims at presenting a label-free electrochemical biosensor as a powerful nanobiodevice for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection. Utilizing the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody onto the electrode surface as a specific platform in an ordered orientation through staphylococcal protein A (ProtA) is highly significant in fabricating the designed nanobiodevice. In this sense, the screen-printed carbon electrode modified with Cu2O nanocubes (Cu2O NCs), which provide a large surface area in a very small space, was applied in order to increase the ProtA loading on the electrode surface. Accordingly, the sensitivity and stability of the sensing platform significantly increased. The electrochemical evaluations proved that there is a very good linear relationship between the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and spike protein contents via a specific binding reaction in the range 0.25 fg mL−1 to 1 μg mL−1. Moreover, the assay when tested with influenza viruses 1 and 2 was performed in 20 min with a low detection limit of 0.04 fg mL−1 for spike protein without any cross-reactivity. The designed nanobiodevice exhibited an average satisfactory recovery rate of ~ 97–103% in different artificial sample matrices, i.e., saliva, artificial nasal, and universal transport medium (UTM), illustrating its high detection performance and practicability. The nanobiodevice was also tested using real patients and healthy samples, where the results had been already obtained using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure, and showed satisfactory results.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11061030
03 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the global pandemic, which has resulted in more than one million deaths with tens of millions reported cases, requires a fast, accurate, and portable testing mechanism operable in the field environment. Electrochemical sensors, based on paper substrates with portable electrochemical devices, can prove an excellent alternative in mitigating the economic and public health effects of the disease. Herein, we present an impedance biosensor for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein utilizing the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody. This label-free platform utilizing screen-printed electrodes works on the principle of redox reaction impedance of a probe and can detect antigen spikes directly in nasopharyngeal fluid as well as virus samples collected in the universal transport medium (UTM). High conductivity graphene/carbon ink is used for this purpose so as to have a small background impedance that leads to a wider dynamic range of detection. Antibody immobilization onto the electrode surface was conducted through a chemical entity or a biological entity to see their effect; where a biological immobilization can enhance the antibody loading and thereby the sensitivity. In both cases, we were able to have a very low limit of quantification (i.e., 0.25 fg/mL), however, the linear range was 3 orders of magnitude wider for the biological entity-based immobilization. The specificity of the sensor was also tested against high concentrations of H1N1 flu antigens with no appreciable response. The most optimized sensors are used to identify negative and positive COVID-19 samples with great accuracy and precision.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MICROC.2021.106445
Lokman Liv1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Amid the global threat caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, developing sufficiently rapid, accurate, sensitive and selective methods of diagnosing both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases is essential to alleviating and controlling the pandemic’s effects. This article describes an electrochemical immunoassay platform developed to determine the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antibody by using gold-clusters capped with cysteamine, glutaraldehyde, the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen and bovine serum albumin on a glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical oxidation signal of the antigen-based immunosensor at 0.9 V was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody. When saliva and oropharyngeal swab samples were analysed, the recovery and relative standard deviation values were 96.97%–101.99% and 4.99%–5.74%, respectively. The method’s limit of detection relative to the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody in synthetic media and in saliva or oropharyngeal swab samples was 0.01 ag/mL, while the immunosensor’s linear response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody varied from 0.1 to 1000 ag/mL. The cross-reactivity of the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus spike antigen was evaluated after being immobilised onto the functionalised gold-cluster based sensor, indicated that the good specifity of the produced immunosensor.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0258002
30 Sep 2021-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Detecting viruses, which have significant impact on health and the economy, is essential for controlling and combating viral infections. In recent years there has been a focus towards simpler and faster detection methods, specifically through the use of electronic-based detection at the point-of-care. Point-of-care sensors play a particularly important role in the detection of viruses. Tests can be performed in the field or in resource limited regions in a simple manner and short time frame, allowing for rapid treatment. Electronic based detection allows for speed and quantitative detection not otherwise possible at the point-of-care. Such approaches are largely based upon voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, field effect transistors, and similar electrical techniques. Here, we systematically review electronic and electrochemical point-of-care sensors for the detection of human viral pathogens. Using the reported limits of detection and assay times we compare approaches both by detection method and by the target analyte of interest. Compared to recent scoping and narrative reviews, this systematic review which follows established best practice for evidence synthesis adds substantial new evidence on 1) performance and 2) limitations, needed for sensor uptake in the clinical arena. 104 relevant studies were identified by conducting a search of current literature using 7 databases, only including original research articles detecting human viruses and reporting a limit of detection. Detection units were converted to nanomolars where possible in order to compare performance across devices. This approach allows us to identify field effect transistors as having the fastest median response time, and as being the most sensitive, some achieving single-molecule detection. In general, we found that antigens are the quickest targets to detect. We also observe however, that reports are highly variable in their chosen metrics of interest. We suggest that this lack of systematisation across studies may be a major bottleneck in sensor development and translation. Where appropriate, we use the findings of the systematic review to give recommendations for best reporting practice.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ACA.2021.338907
Abstract: The immunosensor has been proven a versatile tool to detect various analytes, such as food contaminants, pathogenic bacteria, antibiotics and biomarkers related to cancer. To fabricate robust and reproducible immunosensors with high sensitivity, the covalent immobilization of immunoglobulins (IgGs) in a site-specific manner contributes to better performance. Instead of the random IgG orientations result from the direct yet non-selective immobilization techniques, this review for the first time introduces the advances of stepwise yet site-selective conjugation strategies to give better biosensing efficiency. Noncovalently adsorbing IgGs is the first but decisive step to interact specifically with the Fc fragment, then following covalent conjugate can fix this uniform and antigens-favorable orientation irreversibly. In this review, we first categorized this stepwise strategy into two parts based on the different noncovalent interactions, namely adhesive layer-mediated interaction onto homofunctional support and layer-free interaction onto heterofunctional support (which displays several different functionalities on its surface that are capable to interact with IgGs). Further, the influence of ligands characteristics (synthesis strategies, spacer requirements and matrices selection) on the heterofunctional support has also been discussed. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives for the real-world application of stepwise covalent conjugation are discussed. This review provides more insights into the fabrication of high-efficiency immunosensor, and special attention has been devoted to the well-orientation of full-length IgGs onto the sensing platform.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TALANTA.2021.123076
22 Nov 2021-Talanta
Abstract: Mass testing for the diagnostics of COVID-19 has been hampered in many countries owing to the high cost of the methodologies to detect genetic material of SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, we report on a low-cost immunosensor capable of detecting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, including in samples of inactivated virus. Detection is performed with electrical impedance spectroscopy using an immunosensor that contains a monolayer film of carboxymethyl chitosan as matrix, coated with an active layer of antibodies specific to the spike protein. In addition to a low limit of detection of 0.179 fg/mL within an almost linear behavior from 10−20 g/mL to 10−14 g/mL, the immunosensor was highly selective. For the samples with the spike protein could be distinguished in multidimensional projection plots from samples with other biomarkers and analytes that could be interfering species for healthy and infected patients. The excellent analytical performance of the immunosensors was validated with the distinction between control samples and those containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2 at different concentrations. The mechanism behind the immunosensor performance is the specific antibody-protein interaction, as confirmed with the changes induced in C–H stretching and protein bands in polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectra (PM-IRRAS). Because impedance spectroscopy measurements can be made with low-cost portable instruments, the immunosensor proposed here can be applied in point-of-care diagnostics for mass testing even in places with limited resources.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5
Xiaobo Yang1, Yuan Yu1, Jiqian Xu1, Huaqing Shu1  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.

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Topics: Pneumonia (56%), ARDS (55%), Intensive care unit (54%) ... show more

5,846 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3760/CMA.J.ISSN.0254-6450.2020.02.003
Abstract: Objective An outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. Here, we report results of a descriptive, exploratory analysis of all cases diagnosed as of February 11, 2020. Methods All COVID-19 cases reported through February 11, 2020 were extracted from China’s Infectious Disease Information System. Analyses included: 1) summary of patient characteristics; 2) examination of age distributions and sex ratios; 3) calculation of case fatality and mortality rates; 4) geo-temporal analysis of viral spread; 5) epidemiological curve construction; and 6) subgroup analysis. Results A total of 72 314 patient records-44 672 (61.8%) confirmed cases, 16 186 (22.4%) suspected cases, 10567 (14.6%) clinical diagnosed cases (Hubei only), and 889 asymptomatic cases (1.2%)-contributed data for the analysis. Among confirmed cases, most were aged 30-79 years (86.6%), diagnosed in Hubei (74.7%), and considered mild/mild pneumonia (80.9%). A total of 1 023 deaths occurred among confirmed cases for an overall case-fatality rate of 2.3%. The COVID-19 spread outward from Hubei sometime after December 2019 and by February 11, 2020, 1 386 counties across all 31 provinces were affected. The epidemic curve of onset of symptoms peaked in January 23-26, then began to decline leading up to February 11. A total of 1 716 health workers have become infected and 5 have died (0.3%). Conclusions The COVID-19 epidemic has spread very quickly. It only took 30 days to expand from Hubei to the rest of Mainland China. With many people returning from a long holiday, China needs to prepare for the possible rebound of the epidemic. Key words: 2019 Novel Coronavirus; Outbreak; Epidemiological characteristics

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Topics: Case fatality rate (53%), Outbreak (51%)

2,691 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJME2002387
Abstract: Covid-19 — Navigating the Uncharted Fauci, Lane, and Redfield comment on the early clinical features and epidemiology of cases reported in Wuhan, China, along with current mortality data, noting th...

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1,006 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CLINCHEM/HVAA029
Daniel K.W. Chu1, Yang Pan2, Yang Pan3, Samuel M.S. Cheng1  +10 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Apr 2020-Clinical Chemistry
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin (2019-nCoV) has recently been identified in patients with acute respiratory disease. This virus is genetically similar to SARS coronavirus and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. The outbreak was initially detected in Wuhan, a major city of China, but has subsequently been detected in other provinces of China. Travel-associated cases have also been reported in a few other countries. Outbreaks in health care workers indicate human-to-human transmission. Molecular tests for rapid detection of this virus are urgently needed for early identification of infected patients. METHODS: We developed two 1-step quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR assays to detect two different regions (ORF1b and N) of the viral genome. The primer and probe sets were designed to react with this novel coronavirus and its closely related viruses, such as SARS coronavirus. These assays were evaluated using a panel of positive and negative controls. In addition, respiratory specimens from two 2019-nCoV-infected patients were tested. RESULTS: Using RNA extracted from cells infected by SARS coronavirus as a positive control, these assays were shown to have a dynamic range of at least seven orders of magnitude (2x10-4-2000 TCID50/reaction). Using DNA plasmids as positive standards, the detection limits of these assays were found to be below 10 copies per reaction. All negative control samples were negative in the assays. Samples from two 2019-nCoV-infected patients were positive in the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The established assays can achieve a rapid detection of 2019n-CoV in human samples, thereby allowing early identification of patients.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%)

838 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSNANO.0C02823
Giwan Seo, Geonhee Lee, Mi-Jeong Kim, Seung Hwa Baek  +11 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Apr 2020-ACS Nano
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously called 2019-nCoV). Based on the rapid increase in the rate of human infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) has classified the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. Because no specific drugs or vaccines for COVID-19 are yet available, early diagnosis and management are crucial for containing the outbreak. Here, we report a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensing device for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. The sensor was produced by coating graphene sheets of the FET with a specific antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The performance of the sensor was determined using antigen protein, cultured virus, and nasopharyngeal swab specimens from COVID-19 patients. Our FET device could detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at concentrations of 1 fg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 100 fg/mL clinical transport medium. In addition, the FET sensor successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 in culture medium (limit of detection [LOD]: 1.6 × 101 pfu/mL) and clinical samples (LOD: 2.42 × 102 copies/mL). Thus, we have successfully fabricated a promising FET biosensor for SARS-CoV-2; our device is a highly sensitive immunological diagnostic method for COVID-19 that requires no sample pretreatment or labeling.

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630 Citations