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Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications

01 Jan 1980-

Abstract: Major Symbols. Standard Abbreviations. Introduction and Overview of Electrode Processes. Potentials and Thermodynamics of Cells. Kinetics of Electrode Reactions. Mass Transfer by Migration and Diffusion. Basic Potential Step Methods. Potential Sweep Methods. Polarography and Pulse Voltammetry. Controlled--Current Techniques. Method Involving Forced Convention--Hydrodynamic Methods. Techniques Based on Concepts of Impedance. Bulk Electrolysis Methods. Electrode Reactions with Coupled Homogeneous Chemical Reactions. Double--Layer Structure and Adsorption. Electroactive Layers and Modified Electrodes. Electrochemical Instrumentation. Scanning Probe Techniques. Spectroelectrochemistry and Other Coupled Characterization Methods. Photoelectrochemistry and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence. Appendix A: Mathematical Methods. Appendix B: Digital Simulations of Electrochemical Problems. Appendix C: Reference Tables. Index.
Citations
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Book
Edward L Cussler1Institutions (1)
25 May 1984-
Abstract: This overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic. Diffusion is a key part of the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum and at the core of understanding chemical purification and reaction engineering. This spontaneous mixing process is also central to our daily lives, with importance in phenomena as diverse as the dispersal of pollutants to digestion in the small intestine. For students, Diffusion goes from the basics of mass transfer and diffusion itself, with strong support through worked examples and a range of student questions. It also takes the reader right through to the cutting edge of our understanding, and the new examples in this third edition will appeal to professional scientists and engineers. Retaining the trademark enthusiastic style, the broad coverage now extends to biology and medicine.

5,085 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bruce E. Logan1, Bert Hamelers2, René A. Rozendal2, Uwe Schröder2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A review of the different materials and methods used to construct MFCs, techniques used to analyze system performance, and recommendations on what information to include in MFC studies and the most useful ways to present results are provided.
Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of different scientific and engineering fields, ranging from microbiology and electrochemistry to materials and environmental engineering. Describing MFC systems therefore involves an understanding of these different scientific and engineering principles. In this paper, we provide a review of the different materials and methods used to construct MFCs, techniques used to analyze system performance, and recommendations on what information to include in MFC studies and the most useful ways to present results.

4,458 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yongye Liang1, Yanguang Li1, Hailiang Wang1, Jigang Zhou2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Oct 2011-Nature Materials
TL;DR: The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER.
Abstract: Catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are at the heart of key renewable-energy technologies including fuel cells and water splitting. Despite tremendous efforts, developing oxygen electrode catalysts with high activity at low cost remains a great challenge. Here, we report a hybrid material consisting of Co₃O₄ nanocrystals grown on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance bi-functional catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although Co₃O₄ or graphene oxide alone has little catalytic activity, their hybrid exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity that is further enhanced by nitrogen doping of graphene. The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions. The same hybrid is also highly active for OER, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER. The unusual catalytic activity arises from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Co₃O₄ and graphene.

4,454 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Objective evaluation of the activity of electrocatalysts for water oxidation is of fundamental importance for the development of promising energy conversion technologies including integrated solar water-splitting devices, water electrolyzers, and Li-air batteries. However, current methods employed to evaluate oxygen-evolving catalysts are not standardized, making it difficult to compare the activity and stability of these materials. We report a protocol for evaluating the activity, stability, and Faradaic efficiency of electrodeposited oxygen-evolving electrocatalysts. In particular, we focus on methods for determining electrochemically active surface area and measuring electrocatalytic activity and stability under conditions relevant to an integrated solar water-splitting device. Our primary figure of merit is the overpotential required to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm–2 per geometric area, approximately the current density expected for a 10% efficient solar-to-fuels conversion device. Utilizing ...

3,662 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yan Jiao1, Yao Zheng1, Mietek Jaroniec2, Shi-Zhang Qiao3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: The emphasis of this review is on the origin of the electrocatalytic activity of nanostructured catalysts toward a series of key clean energy conversion reactions by correlating the apparent electrode performance with their intrinsic electrochemical properties.
Abstract: A fundamental change has been achieved in understanding surface electrochemistry due to the profound knowledge of the nature of electrocatalytic processes accumulated over the past several decades and to the recent technological advances in spectroscopy and high resolution imaging. Nowadays one can preferably design electrocatalysts based on the deep theoretical knowledge of electronic structures, via computer-guided engineering of the surface and (electro)chemical properties of materials, followed by the synthesis of practical materials with high performance for specific reactions. This review provides insights into both theoretical and experimental electrochemistry toward a better understanding of a series of key clean energy conversion reactions including oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The emphasis of this review is on the origin of the electrocatalytic activity of nanostructured catalysts toward the aforementioned reactions by correlating the apparent electrode performance with their intrinsic electrochemical properties. Also, a rational design of electrocatalysts is proposed starting from the most fundamental aspects of the electronic structure engineering to a more practical level of nanotechnological fabrication.

2,928 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI

671 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...These devices have extended electrochemical methodology into broad new domains of space, time, chemical medium, and methodology (6-13)....

    [...]

  • ...They may exceed 10 A/cm(2) or be less than pA/cm(2) (8-14, 28-31)....

    [...]

  • ...These considerations place a lower limit of about 10 nm (100 A) on the critical dimension of UMEs (12, 14, 15)....

    [...]

  • ...A number of excellent expositions of this approach are available in the literature (8-14, 25, 26, 35)....

    [...]

  • ...These questions have been addressed (11-13); and for clusters containing n atoms (where n < 20), E® indeed turns out to be very different from the value for the bulk metal (n » 20)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1963-Soil Science

330 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Since moving a test charge through the interface requires work, the interfacial potential difference is not zero (23-26)....

    [...]

  • ...Although analog circuits that approximate I(t) have been proposed (23), the function is usually evaluated by a numerical integration technique on a computer....

    [...]

  • ...This energy can also be shown to be 4T/2, (22, 23); thus the average molecular velocity is vx = (6T/m) ....

    [...]

  • ...Aoki and Osteryoung (23) show that the two versions of/(r) overlap for 0....

    [...]

  • ...8) о where the function/(т) was determined as two series applicable in different domains of т (21-23)....

    [...]


Book
01 Jan 1962-
TL;DR: From the combination of knowledge and actions, someone can improve their skill and ability, which will lead them to live and work much better and this progress in polarography tells you.
Abstract: From the combination of knowledge and actions, someone can improve their skill and ability. It will lead them to live and work much better. This is why, the students, workers, or even employers should have reading habit for books. Any book will give certain knowledge to take all benefits. This is what this progress in polarography tells you. It will add more knowledge of you to life and work better. Try it and prove it.

225 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Such an electrode will show a limiting current characteristic of the aperture radius, but the heterogeneous kinetics will be governed by the radius of the recessed disk (34, 35)....

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  • ...Allen and Hickling (34) suggested an alternative method allowing the use of data obtained at low overpotentials....

    [...]

  • ...oxide/LiClO4 (34, 35), are sometimes used in electrochemical cells....

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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Dec 1966-Science

176 citations


01 Jan 1973-

139 citations


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YearCitations
202244
2021992
20201,111
20191,095
20181,014
20171,186