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Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive overview of electrode processes and their application in the field of chemical simulation, including potential sweep and potential sweep methods, coupled homogeneous chemical reactions, double-layer structure and adsorption.
Abstract: Major Symbols. Standard Abbreviations. Introduction and Overview of Electrode Processes. Potentials and Thermodynamics of Cells. Kinetics of Electrode Reactions. Mass Transfer by Migration and Diffusion. Basic Potential Step Methods. Potential Sweep Methods. Polarography and Pulse Voltammetry. Controlled--Current Techniques. Method Involving Forced Convention--Hydrodynamic Methods. Techniques Based on Concepts of Impedance. Bulk Electrolysis Methods. Electrode Reactions with Coupled Homogeneous Chemical Reactions. Double--Layer Structure and Adsorption. Electroactive Layers and Modified Electrodes. Electrochemical Instrumentation. Scanning Probe Techniques. Spectroelectrochemistry and Other Coupled Characterization Methods. Photoelectrochemistry and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence. Appendix A: Mathematical Methods. Appendix B: Digital Simulations of Electrochemical Problems. Appendix C: Reference Tables. Index.
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Book
25 May 1984
TL;DR: An overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic as mentioned in this paper, which is a key part of the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum and at the core of understanding chemical purification and reaction engineering.
Abstract: This overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic. Diffusion is a key part of the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum and at the core of understanding chemical purification and reaction engineering. This spontaneous mixing process is also central to our daily lives, with importance in phenomena as diverse as the dispersal of pollutants to digestion in the small intestine. For students, Diffusion goes from the basics of mass transfer and diffusion itself, with strong support through worked examples and a range of student questions. It also takes the reader right through to the cutting edge of our understanding, and the new examples in this third edition will appeal to professional scientists and engineers. Retaining the trademark enthusiastic style, the broad coverage now extends to biology and medicine.

5,195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the different materials and methods used to construct MFCs, techniques used to analyze system performance, and recommendations on what information to include in MFC studies and the most useful ways to present results are provided.
Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of different scientific and engineering fields, ranging from microbiology and electrochemistry to materials and environmental engineering. Describing MFC systems therefore involves an understanding of these different scientific and engineering principles. In this paper, we provide a review of the different materials and methods used to construct MFCs, techniques used to analyze system performance, and recommendations on what information to include in MFC studies and the most useful ways to present results.

5,024 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER.
Abstract: Catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are at the heart of key renewable-energy technologies including fuel cells and water splitting. Despite tremendous efforts, developing oxygen electrode catalysts with high activity at low cost remains a great challenge. Here, we report a hybrid material consisting of Co₃O₄ nanocrystals grown on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance bi-functional catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although Co₃O₄ or graphene oxide alone has little catalytic activity, their hybrid exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity that is further enhanced by nitrogen doping of graphene. The Co₃O₄/N-doped graphene hybrid exhibits similar catalytic activity but superior stability to Pt in alkaline solutions. The same hybrid is also highly active for OER, making it a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both ORR and OER. The unusual catalytic activity arises from synergetic chemical coupling effects between Co₃O₄ and graphene.

4,898 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report a protocol for evaluating the activity, stability, and Faradaic efficiency of electrodeposited oxygen-evolving electrocatalysts for water oxidation.
Abstract: Objective evaluation of the activity of electrocatalysts for water oxidation is of fundamental importance for the development of promising energy conversion technologies including integrated solar water-splitting devices, water electrolyzers, and Li-air batteries. However, current methods employed to evaluate oxygen-evolving catalysts are not standardized, making it difficult to compare the activity and stability of these materials. We report a protocol for evaluating the activity, stability, and Faradaic efficiency of electrodeposited oxygen-evolving electrocatalysts. In particular, we focus on methods for determining electrochemically active surface area and measuring electrocatalytic activity and stability under conditions relevant to an integrated solar water-splitting device. Our primary figure of merit is the overpotential required to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm–2 per geometric area, approximately the current density expected for a 10% efficient solar-to-fuels conversion device. Utilizing ...

4,808 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review acquaints some materials for performing OER activity, in which the metal oxide materials build the basis of OER mechanism while non-oxide materials exhibit greatly promising performance toward overall water-splitting.
Abstract: There is still an ongoing effort to search for sustainable, clean and highly efficient energy generation to satisfy the energy needs of modern society. Among various advanced technologies, electrocatalysis for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role and numerous new electrocatalysts have been developed to improve the efficiency of gas evolution. Along the way, enormous effort has been devoted to finding high-performance electrocatalysts, which has also stimulated the invention of new techniques to investigate the properties of materials or the fundamental mechanism of the OER. This accumulated knowledge not only establishes the foundation of the mechanism of the OER, but also points out the important criteria for a good electrocatalyst based on a variety of studies. Even though it may be difficult to include all cases, the aim of this review is to inspect the current progress and offer a comprehensive insight toward the OER. This review begins with examining the theoretical principles of electrode kinetics and some measurement criteria for achieving a fair evaluation among the catalysts. The second part of this review acquaints some materials for performing OER activity, in which the metal oxide materials build the basis of OER mechanism while non-oxide materials exhibit greatly promising performance toward overall water-splitting. Attention of this review is also paid to in situ approaches to electrocatalytic behavior during OER, and this information is crucial and can provide efficient strategies to design perfect electrocatalysts for OER. Finally, the OER mechanism from the perspective of both recent experimental and theoretical investigations is discussed, as well as probable strategies for improving OER performance with regards to future developments.

3,976 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI

676 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...These devices have extended electrochemical methodology into broad new domains of space, time, chemical medium, and methodology (6-13)....

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  • ...They may exceed 10 A/cm(2) or be less than pA/cm(2) (8-14, 28-31)....

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  • ...These considerations place a lower limit of about 10 nm (100 A) on the critical dimension of UMEs (12, 14, 15)....

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  • ...A number of excellent expositions of this approach are available in the literature (8-14, 25, 26, 35)....

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  • ...These questions have been addressed (11-13); and for clusters containing n atoms (where n < 20), E® indeed turns out to be very different from the value for the bulk metal (n » 20)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI

332 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Since moving a test charge through the interface requires work, the interfacial potential difference is not zero (23-26)....

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  • ...Although analog circuits that approximate I(t) have been proposed (23), the function is usually evaluated by a numerical integration technique on a computer....

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  • ...This energy can also be shown to be 4T/2, (22, 23); thus the average molecular velocity is vx = (6T/m) ....

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  • ...Aoki and Osteryoung (23) show that the two versions of/(r) overlap for 0....

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  • ...8) о where the function/(т) was determined as two series applicable in different domains of т (21-23)....

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Book
01 Jan 1962
TL;DR: From the combination of knowledge and actions, someone can improve their skill and ability, which will lead them to live and work much better and this progress in polarography tells you.
Abstract: From the combination of knowledge and actions, someone can improve their skill and ability. It will lead them to live and work much better. This is why, the students, workers, or even employers should have reading habit for books. Any book will give certain knowledge to take all benefits. This is what this progress in polarography tells you. It will add more knowledge of you to life and work better. Try it and prove it.

225 citations


"Electrochemical Methods: Fundamenta..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Such an electrode will show a limiting current characteristic of the aperture radius, but the heterogeneous kinetics will be governed by the radius of the recessed disk (34, 35)....

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  • ...Allen and Hickling (34) suggested an alternative method allowing the use of data obtained at low overpotentials....

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  • ...oxide/LiClO4 (34, 35), are sometimes used in electrochemical cells....

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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Dec 1966-Science

180 citations