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Journal ArticleDOI

Electrochemical Photolysis of Water at a Semiconductor Electrode

07 Jul 1972-Nature (Nature)-Vol. 238, Iss: 5358, pp 37-38

TL;DR: Water photolysis is investigated by exploiting the fact that water is transparent to visible light and cannot be decomposed directly, but only by radiation with wavelengths shorter than 190 nm.
Abstract: ALTHOUGH the possibility of water photolysis has been investigated by many workers, a useful method has only now been developed. Because water is transparent to visible light it cannot be decomposed directly, but only by radiation with wavelengths shorter than 190 nm (ref. 1).
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Oct 1991-Nature
Abstract: THE large-scale use of photovoltaic devices for electricity generation is prohibitively expensive at present: generation from existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than conventional methods1. Here we describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-µm-thick, optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nanometres in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. Because of the high surface area of the semiconductor film and the ideal spectral characteristics of the dye, the device harvests a high proportion of the incident solar energy flux (46%) and shows exceptionally high efficiencies for the conversion of incident photons to electrical current (more than 80%). The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield is 7.1-7.9% in simulated solar light and 12% in diffuse daylight. The large current densities (greater than 12 mA cm-2) and exceptional stability (sustaining at least five million turnovers without decomposition), as well as the low cost, make practical applications feasible.

25,199 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ryoji Asahi1, Takeshi Morikawa1, T. Ohwaki1, Koyu Aoki1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
13 Jul 2001-Science
TL;DR: Film and powders of TiO2-x Nx have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO2) under visible light in optical absorption and photocatalytic activity such as photodegradations of methylene blue and gaseous acetaldehyde and hydrophilicity of the film surface.
Abstract: To use solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently, we sought a photocatalyst with high reactivity under visible light. Films and powders of TiO 2- x N x have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) under visible light (wavelength 2 has proven to be indispensable for band-gap narrowing and photocatalytic activity, as assessed by first-principles calculations and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

10,756 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basics of the suject are looked at, a brief review of the theory is given, examining the strengths and weaknesses of its implementation, and some of the ways simulators approach problems are illustrated through a small case study.
Abstract: First-principles simulation, meaning density-functional theory calculations with plane waves and pseudopotentials, has become a prized technique in condensed-matter theory. Here I look at the basics of the suject, give a brief review of the theory, examining the strengths and weaknesses of its implementation, and illustrating some of the ways simulators approach problems through a small case study. I also discuss why and how modern software design methods have been used in writing a completely new modular version of the CASTEP code.

8,251 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Anders Hagfeldt1, Gerrit Boschloo1, Licheng Sun1, Lars Kloo1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. DSC research groups have been established around the worl ...

8,076 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Akihiko Kudo1, Yugo Miseki1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This critical review shows the basis of photocatalytic water splitting and experimental points, and surveys heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting into H2 and O2, and H2 or O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing a sacrificial reagent.
Abstract: This critical review shows the basis of photocatalytic water splitting and experimental points, and surveys heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting into H2 and O2, and H2 or O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing a sacrificial reagent Many oxides consisting of metal cations with d0 and d10 configurations, metal (oxy)sulfide and metal (oxy)nitride photocatalysts have been reported, especially during the latest decade The fruitful photocatalyst library gives important information on factors affecting photocatalytic performances and design of new materials Photocatalytic water splitting and H2 evolution using abundant compounds as electron donors are expected to contribute to construction of a clean and simple system for solar hydrogen production, and a solution of global energy and environmental issues in the future (361 references)

7,805 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
2022146
20212,253
20202,073
20192,081
20182,030
20171,997