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Journal ArticleDOI

Electrodermal Activity Based Pre-surgery Stress Detection Using a Wrist Wearable

TL;DR: An automatic pre-surgery stress detection scheme based on electrodermal activity (EDA) that yielded a classification accuracy of 85.06% on a new user dataset and proved to be more effective than the general supervised classification model.
Abstract: Surgery is a particularly potent stressor and the detrimental effects of stress on people undergoing any surgery is indisputable. When left unchecked, the pre-surgery stress adversely impacts people's physical and psychological well-being, and may even evolve into severe pathological states. Therefore, it is essential to identify levels of preoperative stress in surgical patients. This paper focuses on developing an automatic pre-surgery stress detection scheme based on electrodermal activity (EDA). The measurement set up involves a wrist wearable that monitors EDA of a subject continuously in the most non-invasive and unobtrusive manner. Data were collected from 41 subjects [17 females and 24 males, age: 54.8 $\pm$ 16.8 years (mean $\pm$ SD)], who subsequently underwent different surgical procedures at the Sri Ramakrishna Hospital, Coimbatore, India. A supervised machine learning algorithm that detects motion artifacts in the recorded EDA data was developed. It yielded an accuracy of 97.83% on a new user dataset. The clean EDA data were further analyzed to determine low, moderate, and high levels of stress. A novel localized supervised learning scheme based on the adaptive partitioning of the dataset was adopted for stress detection. Consequently, the interindividual variability in the EDA due to person-specific factors such as the sweat gland density and skin thickness, which may lead to erroneous classification, could be eliminated. The scheme yielded a classification accuracy of 85.06% on a new user dataset and proved to be more effective than the general supervised classification model.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The comparison of stress detection accuracies resulted from EMG and ECG indicators demonstrated the strong ability and the effectiveness of EMG signal for multi-level stress detection.

88 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 May 2021-Sensors
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identified and critically appraised the most recent smart devices and wearable technologies used to identify depression, anxiety, and stress, and the physiological process(es) linked to their detection.
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increase in the production of devices to monitor mental health and stress as means for expediting detection, and subsequent management of these conditions. The objective of this review is to identify and critically appraise the most recent smart devices and wearable technologies used to identify depression, anxiety, and stress, and the physiological process(es) linked to their detection. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, and PsycINFO databases were used to identify studies which utilised smart devices and wearable technologies to detect or monitor anxiety, depression, or stress. The included articles that assessed stress and anxiety unanimously used heart rate variability (HRV) parameters for detection of anxiety and stress, with the latter better detected by HRV and electroencephalogram (EGG) together. Electrodermal activity was used in recent studies, with high accuracy for stress detection; however, with questionable reliability. Depression was found to be largely detected using specific EEG signatures; however, devices detecting depression using EEG are not currently available on the market. This systematic review highlights that average heart rate used by many commercially available smart devices is not as accurate in the detection of stress and anxiety compared with heart rate variability, electrodermal activity, and possibly respiratory rate.

39 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: RevitalMe is presented, a context-aware model for assisting a psychotherapeutic understanding of human behavior, providing psychophysiological insights from real-life, focusing on assistance in mental healthcare.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Multiple biosignals from different parts of the body are used to determine the state of mind of an individual as a single biosignal cannot propose a particular decision threshold for detection.
Abstract: Detection of the state of mind has increasingly grown into a much favored study in recent years. After the advent of smart wearables in the market, each individual now expects to be delivered with state-of-the-art reports about his body. The most dominant wearables in the market often focus on general metrics such as the number of steps, distance walked, heart rate, oximetry, sleep quality, and sleep stage. But, for accurately identifying the well-being of an individual, another important metric needs to be analyzed, which is the state of mind. The state of mind is a metric of an individual that boils down to the activity of all other related metrics. But, the detection of the state of mind has formed a huge challenge for the researchers as a single biosignal cannot propose a particular decision threshold for detection. Therefore, in this work, multiple biosignals from different parts of the body are used to determine the state of mind of an individual. The biosignals, blood volume pulse (BVP), and accelerometer are intercepted from a wrist-worn wearable, and electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG), and respiration are intercepted from a chest-worn pod. For the classification of the biosignals to the multiple state-of-mind categories, a multichannel convolutional neural network architecture was developed. The overall model performed pretty well and pursued some encouraging results by demonstrating an average recall and precision of 97.238% and 97.652% across all the classes, respectively.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt has been made to classify emotional states using electrodermal activity (EDA) signals and multiscale convolutional neural networks (MSCNN).
Abstract: In this work, an attempt has been made to classify emotional states using electrodermal activity (EDA) signals and multiscale convolutional neural networks. For this, EDA signals are considered from a publicly available “A Dataset for Emotion Analysis using Physiological Signals” (DEAP) database. These signals are decomposed into multiple-scales using the coarse-grained method. The multiscale signals are applied to the Multiscale Convolutional Neural Network (MSCNN) to automatically learn robust features directly from the raw signals. Experiments are performed with the MSCNN approach to evaluate the hypothesis (i) improved classification with electrodermal activity signals, and (ii) multiscale learning captures robust complementary features at a different scale. Results show that the proposed approach is able to differentiate various emotional states. The proposed approach yields a classification accuracy of 69.33% and 71.43% for valence and arousal states, respectively. It is observed that the number of layers and the signal length are the determinants for the classifier performance. The performance of the proposed approach outperforms the single-layer convolutional neural network. The MSCNN approach provides end-to-end learning and classification of emotional states without additional signal processing. Thus, it appears that the proposed method could be a useful tool to assess the difference in emotional states for automated decision making.

15 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jacob Cohen1
TL;DR: A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is providedHere the sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests.
Abstract: One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.

38,291 citations


"Electrodermal Activity Based Pre-su..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Further, these effect sizes were interpreted based on thresholds defined in [39], i....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
Abstract: A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.

35,518 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of oversampling the minority (abnormal)cla ss and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)tha n only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)t han varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC)and the ROC convex hull strategy.

17,313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority (abnormal) class and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.

11,512 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Un nouvel inventaire auto-administre destine a mesurer l'anxiete pathologique, le «Beck Anxiety Cheklist» (BAI) est decrit, evalue et compare au «Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale» (test avec lequel des correlations moderees sont trouvees).
Abstract: Un nouvel inventaire auto-administre destine a mesurer l'anxiete pathologique, le «Beck Anxiety Cheklist» (BAI) est decrit, evalue et compare au «Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale» (test avec lequel des correlations moderees sont trouvees)

11,139 citations


"Electrodermal Activity Based Pre-su..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [6], Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [7], or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [8] are the most commonly used tools for stress measurement....

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