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Journal ArticleDOI

Electromagnetic Analysis on 2.5MJ High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Coil to be used in Uninterruptible Power Applications

01 Jan 2020-Materials Today: Proceedings (Elsevier BV)-Vol. 21, pp 1755-1762
TL;DR: In this paper, a 2.5MJ SMES solenoidal magnet using 2G (SuperPower, YBCO having Tc=90K @ 0T) HTS tape has been evaluated.
About: This article is published in Materials Today: Proceedings.The article was published on 2020-01-01. It has received 8 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Superconducting magnetic energy storage & Energy storage.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a comprehensive overview of the applications of various energy storage technologies and evaluates their capabilities of mitigating the fluctuation and uncertainty of renewable energy, including superconducting magnetic energy, flywheel energy, redox flow batteries, compressed air energy storage, pump hydro storage and lithium-ion batteries.
Abstract: Given the urgency of climate change mitigation, it is crucial to increase the practical utilization of renewable energy. However, high uncertainty and large fluctuation of variable renewable energy create enormous challenges to increasing the penetration of renewable energy. Various energy storage technologies have been applied to renewable energy to handle the fluctuation and uncertainty problem. To enrich the knowledge about the effects of energy storage technologies, this paper performs a comprehensive overview of the applications of various energy storage technologies and evaluates their capabilities of mitigating the fluctuation and uncertainty of renewable energy. The main techno-economic characteristics of the energy storage technologies, including: super-conducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel energy storage, redox flow batteries, compressed air energy storage, pump hydro storage and lithium-ion batteries, are analyzed. Moreover, supercapacitor storage, sodium‑sulfur batteries, lead-acid batteries and nickel‑cadmium batteries are also discussed in this study.

47 citations

S S Oh, H S Ha, D W Ha, Y K Kwon, K S Ryu 
23 Nov 2001
TL;DR: In this article, the powder-in-tube process was optimized to enhance the engineering critical current density of Bi-2223/Ag tapes for HTS current leads, and a low heat leak type HTS-current lead was fabricated with multi-filamentary Bi-23/Au tapes by employing a stepped geometry.
Abstract: Abstract We are developing Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a high engineering critical current density by optimizing the powder-in-tube process and are studying its application to coil and current leads. We have fabricated 250 m-long tape and investigated optimized processing conditions to enhance engineering critical current density. More bubbling was found when the tape was heat-treated with a higher heating rate. Different kinds of superconducting joints were fabricated with multi-filamentary Bi-2223/Ag tapes, and 58% of retained I c was achieved using the insertion of Bi-2223 core between two exposed tapes. Current decay property of the persistent mode HTS coil was investigated. Rapid current decay was observed when the operating current is in a flux-flow range. We could successfully fabricate a low heat leak type HTS current lead with Bi-2223/Ag–Au tapes by employing a stepped geometry. Using this lead, safe operation of 2 kA current transport was confirmed.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a clear and concise review on the use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems for renewable energy applications with the attendant challenges and future research direction is provided.
Abstract: This paper provides a clear and concise review on the use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems for renewable energy applications with the attendant challenges and future research direction. A brief history of SMES and the operating principle has been presented. Also, the main components of SMES are discussed. A bibliographical software was used to analyse important keywords relating to SMES obtained from top 1240 most relevant research on superconducting magnetic energy storage system that have been published in reputable journals in recent times. Comparison of SMES with other competitive energy storage technologies is presented in order to reveal the present status of SMES in relation to other viable energy storage systems. In addition, various research on the application of SMES for renewable energy applications are reviewed including control strategies and power electronic interfaces for SMES. Important technology road map and set targets for SMES development from year 2020 to 2050 are summarized. This paper also discusses important challenges facing the development and application of SMES and points out vital future research direction on the development and improvement of SMES systems for renewable energy applications. This work will be of significant interest and will provide important insights for researchers in the field of renewable energy and energy storage, utilities and government agencies. • Review of SMES for renewable energy applications has been carried out. • Bibliographical analysis of important keywords on SMES has been provided. • Published articles in the last 10 years on SMES categorized and presented. • Road map and set targets for SMES technology from 2020 to 2050 are summarized. • Challenges of SMES application and future research direction have been discussed.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) produced by Si micro fabrication technologies has been proposed to improve electricity storage volume density, w, in the sub-Wh/L range of conventional SMESs and to produce them at a low cost by mass production.
Abstract: A compact superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) produced by Si micro fabrication technologies has been proposed to improve electricity storage volume density, w, in the sub-Wh/L range of conventional SMESs and to produce them at a low cost by mass production. In parallel with the experimental development reported previously, a series of trials was performed to estimate a feasible value of w based on the calculation of the magnetic field generated by the compact SMES by improving the calculation models step by step. In this work, the experimentally obtained magnetic flux density dependence of superconductive critical current density was taken into consideration for the first time in this series of trials, together with the additional improvement of the calculation models. The results of the estimation indicated that a compact SMES produced by the proposed concept can attain a w in the Wh/L range or more, ranking with or surpassing that of presently used capacitors.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential of supercritical nitrogen for cooling of superconductors has been determined and it has been found that density of super critical nitrogen is much larger than liquid nitrogen thus can be considered for cooling applications.

2 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Charles P. Bean1
TL;DR: Experimental results and phenomenological theory based on the sponge model for hysteretic high-field superconductors are given in this article, where the response of the supercondors to alternating fields superimposed upon steady fields is studied.
Abstract: Experimental results and phenomenological theory based on the sponge model for hysteretic high-field superconductors are given. After developing the exposition for static magnetization, the response of the superconductors to alternating fields superimposed upon steady fields is studied. (T.F.H.)

3,634 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An elegant and rapid numerical method is presented which solves this, in general, nonlinear one-dimensional integrodifferential equation with high precision on a personal computer and which accounts for the facts that the integral kernel has a logarithmic singularity.
Abstract: The sheet current, electric field, and penetrating magnetic field in response to an applied perpendicular ac magnetic field are calculated for a thin type-II superconducting strip characterized completely by its sheet resistivity, which may be either nonlinear and frequency independent or linear, complex, and frequency dependent. The general formulation is given for the linear or nonlinear response of a strip and a circular disk in perpendicular time-varying magnetic field. An elegant and rapid numerical method is presented which solves this, in general, nonlinear one-dimensional integrodifferential equation with high precision on a personal computer and which accounts for the facts that the integral kernel has a logarithmic singularity and the sheet current for nearly ideal shielding (occurring at short times or high frequencies or for strong pinning of flux lines) has a one-over-square-root singularity near the specimen edges. As examples the linear Ohmic response of the strip to a sudden change of the applied field and to an ac field are given; Ohmic response is realized during flux flow or thermally activated flux flow. The complex magnetic susceptibility and the ac losses of the Ohmic strip are computed and approximated by simple expressions. This work completes the calculation of dissipation peaks in vibrating superconductors caused by various diffusion modes of the flux lines.

217 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jianwei Li1, Min Zhang1, Qingqing Yang1, Zhenyu Zhang1, Weijia Yuan1 
TL;DR: A new power control algorithm, which integrates a power grading strategy with the filtration control method, is introduced in this paper, achieving further improvement of battery lifetime.
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) hybridized with the battery into the electric bus (EB) with the benefit of extending battery lifetime. A new power control algorithm, which integrates a power grading strategy with the filtration control method, is introduced in this paper, achieving further improvement of battery lifetime. To demonstrate the performance of the SMES/battery hybrid energy storage system (HESS), a dynamic EB system is described with the advantage of considering more factors into the driving patterns. Simulation results show that the proposed HESS has successfully combined the SMES with the battery forming an optimal system that has the advantages of primary energy storage systems while complementing the disadvantages of each system. This paper also does the quantitative analysis of battery lifetime extension in the battery-only system, the filtration-based HESS, and the novel control-based HESS.

82 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered BSCCO-2223 wire for the HTS windings and the operating temperature of the winding was decided to be 20 K which will be accomplished by conduction cooling method using cryo-coolers.
Abstract: Development of a 600 kJ Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system is in progress by Korean Electric Research Institute (KERI). High-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are going to be used for the winding of the system. The design of the HTS windings for the system is presented in this paper. We considered BSCCO-2223 wire for the HTS windings. The operating temperature of the winding was decided to be 20 K which will be accomplished by conduction cooling method using cryo-coolers. Auto-Tuning Niching Genetic Algorithm was adopted for an optimization method of the HTS magnets in the SMES system. The objective function of the optimal process was minimizing the total amount of the HTS wire. We also estimated the AC loss which can be generated in the discharge period. These HTS windings are going to be applied to the SMES system whose purpose is the stabilization of the power grid

58 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a high Tc toroidal coil using YBCO coated conductor is designed for 70 MJ class superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power system control.
Abstract: High Tc superconducting (HTS) toroidal coil using YBCO coated conductor is designed for 70 MJ class superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power system control. Its configuration and shape are optimized by means of genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize the required length of the conductor. The optimization is performed for two kinds of constrains, i.e., maximum electric field or flux flow loss of the coil, which are calculated by means of finite element method (FEM). The FEM analysis considers quantitative current density (J)-electric field (E) expressions based on percolation transition model. It is shown that the great transport performance against magnetic field of YBCO coated conductor can realize a very compact SMES coil compared with an existing Nb-Ti's one.

49 citations