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Electromagnetic Simulation Using the FDTD Method

20 Jul 2000-
About: The article was published on 2000-07-20 and is currently open access. It has received 1169 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Finite-difference time-domain method.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper describes Meep, a popular free implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for simulating electromagnetism, and focuses on aspects of implementing a full-featured FDTD package that go beyond standard textbook descriptions of the algorithm.

2,489 citations


Cites methods from "Electromagnetic Simulation Using th..."

  • ...(We alsoprovide a way to effectively “pipe” the HDF5 output to an external program within Meep: for example, to output the HDF5 file, convert it immediately to an image with a plotting program, and then delete the HDF5 file; this is especially useful for producing animations consisting of hundreds of frames.)...

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  • ...Consider the output of the fields at a given timestep to an HDF5datafile....

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  • ...Operating system:any Unix-like system; developed under Debian GNU/Linux 5.0.2 RAM:problem dependent (roughly 100 bytes per pixel/voxel) Classification:10 Electrostatics and Electromagnetics ∗Corresponding author ∗∗Principal corresponding author Email addresses:ardavan@mit.edu (Ardavan F. Oskooi),roundyd@physics.oregonstate.edu (David Roundy),michel@alum.mit.edu (Mihai Ibanescu),bermel@mit.edu (Peter Bermel),joannop@mit.edu (J. D. Joannopoulos),stevenj@math.mit.edu (Steven G. Johnson) Preprint submitted to Elsevier January 8, 2010 External routines/libraries: optionally exploits additional free software packages: GNU Guile [1], libctl interface library [2], HDF5 [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], and Harminv filter-diagonalization [5] (which requires LAPACK and BLAS linear-algebra software [6])....

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  • ...In keeping with the Unix philosophy, Meep is not a plotting prog am; instead, it outputs fields and related data to the standard HDF5 format for scientific datasets [67], which can be read by many other programs and visualized in various ways....

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  • ...gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like system and a C++ compiler; optionally exploits additional free software packages: GNU Guile [1], libctl interface library [2], HDF5 [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], and Harminv filter-diagonalization [5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work demonstrates a 32-Gbit’s−1 millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s− 1 Hz−1 using four independent orbital–angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations, and shows an 8-Gbits−1 link containing two orbital angular momentum beams with crosstalk less than −12.5 dB.
Abstract: One property of electromagnetic waves that has been recently explored is the ability to multiplex multiple beams, such that each beam has a unique helical phase front. The amount of phase front ‘twisting’ indicates the orbital angular momentum state number, and beams with different orbital angular momentum are orthogonal. Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair by transmitting multiple coaxial data streams. Here we demonstrate a 32-Gbit s−1 millimetre-wave link over 2.5 metres with a spectral efficiency of ~16 bit s−1 Hz−1 using four independent orbital–angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. All eight orbital angular momentum channels are recovered with bit-error rates below 3.8 × 10−3. In addition, we demonstrate a millimetre-wave orbital angular momentum mode demultiplexer to demultiplex four orbital angular momentum channels with crosstalk less than −12.5 dB and show an 8-Gbit s−1 link containing two orbital angular momentum beams on each of two polarizations. High speed data transmission using orbital angular momentum beams has been recently demonstrated. Here, Yan et al. demonstrate a 32 Gbit/s millimetre-wave communication link using eight coaxially propagating independent orbital angular momentum beams with four orbital angular momentum states on two orthogonal polarizations.

1,002 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It appears possible that the use of plasmon-controlled fluorescence will allow construction of wide-field optical microscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution down to 25 nm, and it is predicted that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices.
Abstract: Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow design of structures that enhance emission at specific wavelengths and the creation of new devices that control and transport the energy from excited fluorophores in the form of plasmons, and then convert the plasmons back to light. Finally, it appears possible that the use of PCF will allow construction of wide-field optical microscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution down to 25 nm.

534 citations


Cites background from "Electromagnetic Simulation Using th..."

  • ...However, with modern computers electrodynamic calculations have become routine for complex macroscopic objects [ 32 ,33]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a series of plasmonic and metamaterial structures can work as efficient narrowband absorbers due to the excitation of plasmic or photonic resonances, providing a great potential for applications in designing selective thermal emitters, biosensing, etc.
Abstract: Electromagnetic absorbers have drawn increasing attention in many areas. A series of plasmonic and metamaterial structures can work as efficient narrowband absorbers due to the excitation of plasmonic or photonic resonances, providing a great potential for applications in designing selective thermal emitters, biosensing, etc. In other applications such as solar-energy harvesting and photonic detection, the bandwidth of light absorbers is required to be quite broad. Under such a background, a variety of mechanisms of broadband/multiband absorption have been proposed, such as mixing multiple resonances together, exciting phase resonances, slowing down light by anisotropic metamaterials, employing high loss materials and so on.

455 citations


Cites methods from "Electromagnetic Simulation Using th..."

  • ...Nowadays, numerical methods including the finite-element method (FEM) [68], finite-difference timedomain method (FDTD) [69], finite-integration technique (FIT) [70], and rigorous coupled-wave analysis method (RCWA) [71] have become powerful enough to quantify the electromagnetic response from arbitrary objects....

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Posted Content
TL;DR: A series of plasmonic and metamaterial structures can work as efficient narrow band absorbers, providing a great potential for applications in designing selective thermal emitters, bio-sensing, etc as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Electromagnetic absorbers have drawn increasing attention in many areas. A series of plasmonic and metamaterial structures can work as efficient narrow band absorbers due to the excitation of plasmonic or photonic resonances, providing a great potential for applications in designing selective thermal emitters, bio-sensing, etc. In other applications such as solar energy harvesting and photonic detection, the bandwidth of light absorbers is required to be quite broad. Under such a background, a variety of mechanisms of broadband/multiband absorption have been proposed, such as mixing multiple resonances together, exciting phase resonances, slowing down light by anisotropic metamaterials, employing high loss materials and so on.

433 citations