Electronics and Its Worldwide Research
11 Jun 2020-Electronics (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 9, Iss: 6, pp 977
TL;DR: A global vision of the issues published in the Electronic magazine and their importance, advances and developments that have been particularly relevant for subsequent research are established.
Abstract: The contributions of researchers at a global level in the journal Electronics in the period 2012–2020 are analyzed. The objective of this work is to establish a global vision of the issues published in the Electronic magazine and their importance, advances and developments that have been particularly relevant for subsequent research. The magazine has 15 thematic sections and a general one, with the programming of 385 special issues for 2020–2021. Using the Scopus database and bibliometric techniques, 2310 documents are obtained and distributed in 14 thematic communities. The communities that contribute to the greatest number of works are Power Electronics (20.13%), Embedded Computer Systems (13.59%) and Internet of Things and Machine Learning Systems (8.11%). A study of the publications by authors, affiliations, countries as well as the H index was undertaken. The 7561 authors analyzed are distributed in 87 countries, with China being the country of the majority (2407 authors), followed by South Korea (763 authors). The H-index of most authors (75.89%) ranges from 0 to 9, where the authors with the highest H-Index are from the United States, Denmark, Italy and India. The main publication format is the article (92.16%) and the review (5.84%). The magazine publishes topics in continuous development that will be further investigated and published in the near future in fields as varied as the transport sector, energy systems, the development of new broadband semiconductors, new modulation and control techniques, and more.
TL;DR: This review paper summarizes past developments and recent advances of the various methods with the aim of describing the current state-of-the-art in CM research.
Abstract: Condition monitoring (CM) of power semiconductor devices enhances converter reliability and customer service. Many studies have investigated the semiconductor devices failure modes, the sensor technologies, and the signal processing techniques to optimize the CM. Furthermore, the improvement of power devices’ CM thanks to the use of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence technologies is rising in smart grids, transportation electrification, and so on. These technologies will be widespread in the future, where more and more smart techniques and smart sensors will enable a better estimation of the state of the health (SOH) of the devices. Considering the increasing use of power converters, CM is essential as the analysis of the data obtained from multiple sensors enables the prediction of the SOH, which, in turn, enables to properly schedule the maintenance, i.e., accounting for the trade-off between the maintenance cost and the cost and issues due to the device failure. From this perspective, this review paper summarizes past developments and recent advances of the various methods with the aim of describing the current state-of-the-art in CM research.
TL;DR: The results of the classical engineering design problems and real application prove that the proposed GWO algorithm is applicable to challenging problems with unknown search spaces.
Abstract: This work proposes a new meta-heuristic called Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) inspired by grey wolves (Canis lupus). The GWO algorithm mimics the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. Four types of grey wolves such as alpha, beta, delta, and omega are employed for simulating the leadership hierarchy. In addition, the three main steps of hunting, searching for prey, encircling prey, and attacking prey, are implemented. The algorithm is then benchmarked on 29 well-known test functions, and the results are verified by a comparative study with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Differential Evolution (DE), Evolutionary Programming (EP), and Evolution Strategy (ES). The results show that the GWO algorithm is able to provide very competitive results compared to these well-known meta-heuristics. The paper also considers solving three classical engineering design problems (tension/compression spring, welded beam, and pressure vessel designs) and presents a real application of the proposed method in the field of optical engineering. The results of the classical engineering design problems and real application prove that the proposed algorithm is applicable to challenging problems with unknown search spaces.
•19 Mar 2009
TL;DR: This work presents several key features of Gephi in the context of interactive exploration and interpretation of networks, and highlights key aspects of dynamic network visualization.
Abstract: Gephi is an open source software for graph and network analysis. It uses a 3D render engine to display large networks in real-time and to speed up the exploration. A flexible and multi-task architecture brings new possibilities to work with complex data sets and produce valuable visual results. We present several key features of Gephi in the context of interactive exploration and interpretation of networks. It provides easy and broad access to network data and allows for spatializing, filtering, navigating, manipulating and clustering. Finally, by presenting dynamic features of Gephi, we highlight key aspects of dynamic network visualization.
TL;DR: While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios.
Abstract: Multi-user MIMO offers big advantages over conventional point-to-point MIMO: it works with cheap single-antenna terminals, a rich scattering environment is not required, and resource allocation is simplified because every active terminal utilizes all of the time-frequency bins. However, multi-user MIMO, as originally envisioned, with roughly equal numbers of service antennas and terminals and frequency-division duplex operation, is not a scalable technology. Massive MIMO (also known as large-scale antenna systems, very large MIMO, hyper MIMO, full-dimension MIMO, and ARGOS) makes a clean break with current practice through the use of a large excess of service antennas over active terminals and time-division duplex operation. Extra antennas help by focusing energy into ever smaller regions of space to bring huge improvements in throughput and radiated energy efficiency. Other benefits of massive MIMO include extensive use of inexpensive low-power components, reduced latency, simplification of the MAC layer, and robustness against intentional jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on the propagation environment providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, but so far experiments have not disclosed any limitations in this regard. While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios. This article presents an overview of the massive MIMO concept and contemporary research on the topic.
TL;DR: This paper addresses the potential impact of pilot contamination caused by the use of non-orthogonal pilot sequences by users in adjacent cells, and analyzes the energy efficiency and degrees of freedom provided by massive MIMO systems to enable efficient single-carrier transmission.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications refers to the idea equipping cellular base stations (BSs) with a very large number of antennas, and has been shown to potentially allow for orders of magnitude improvement in spectral and energy efficiency using relatively simple (linear) processing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art research on the topic, which has recently attracted considerable attention. We begin with an information theoretic analysis to illustrate the conjectured advantages of massive MIMO, and then we address implementation issues related to channel estimation, detection and precoding schemes. We particularly focus on the potential impact of pilot contamination caused by the use of non-orthogonal pilot sequences by users in adjacent cells. We also analyze the energy efficiency achieved by massive MIMO systems, and demonstrate how the degrees of freedom provided by massive MIMO systems enable efficient single-carrier transmission. Finally, the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing massive MIMO in future wireless communications systems are discussed.
TL;DR: An overview of 5G research, standardization trials, and deployment challenges is provided, with research test beds delivering promising performance but pre-commercial trials lagging behind the desired 5G targets.
Abstract: There is considerable pressure to define the key requirements of 5G, develop 5G standards, and perform technology trials as quickly as possible. Normally, these activities are best done in series but there is a desire to complete these tasks in parallel so that commercial deployments of 5G can begin by 2020. 5G will not be an incremental improvement over its predecessors; it aims to be a revolutionary leap forward in terms of data rates, latency, massive connectivity, network reliability, and energy efficiency. These capabilities are targeted at realizing high-speed connectivity, the Internet of Things, augmented virtual reality, the tactile internet, and so on. The requirements of 5G are expected to be met by new spectrum in the microwave bands (3.3-4.2 GHz), and utilizing large bandwidths available in mm-wave bands, increasing spatial degrees of freedom via large antenna arrays and 3-D MIMO, network densification, and new waveforms that provide scalability and flexibility to meet the varying demands of 5G services. Unlike the one size fits all 4G core networks, the 5G core network must be flexible and adaptable and is expected to simultaneously provide optimized support for the diverse 5G use case categories. In this paper, we provide an overview of 5G research, standardization trials, and deployment challenges. Due to the enormous scope of 5G systems, it is necessary to provide some direction in a tutorial article, and in this overview, the focus is largely user centric, rather than device centric. In addition to surveying the state of play in the area, we identify leading technologies, evaluating their strengths and weaknesses, and outline the key challenges ahead, with research test beds delivering promising performance but pre-commercial trials lagging behind the desired 5G targets.