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Electrophysiological indices reflect switches between Bayesian and heuristic strategies in perceptual learning

01 Sep 2017-bioRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)-pp 183665
TL;DR: It is found that only participants who switched between a Bayesian and a heuristic strategy showed worse performance for instructive than monetary feedback, whereas participants who consistently employed Bayesian inference showed equivalent performance in both feedback conditions.
Abstract: Given finite cognitive resources, agents should allocate these to maximise desirable outcomes while minimising cognitive effort. This trade-off has often been studied as a competition between Bayesian inference and 9fast-and-frugal9 heuristic strategies. An important open question in this regard is whether utilisation of Bayesian inference is dependent upon motivational state, and how this is reflected in the brain. We recorded electroencephalography from 23 participants performing a perceptual learning task with both monetary and a non-monetary instructive feedback conditions. Using model-based cluster analysis, we found that only participants who switched between a Bayesian and a heuristic strategy showed worse performance for instructive than monetary feedback, whereas participants who consistently employed Bayesian inference showed equivalent performance in both feedback conditions. This pattern of behavioural results was mirrored by differences in neural encoding of feedback in two event-related potential components: the P3, and the late positive potential. These findings suggest that use of Bayesian inference in perceptual learning may depend on motivational state.
References
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TL;DR: This final installment of the paper considers the case where the signals or the messages or both are continuously variable, in contrast with the discrete nature assumed until now.
Abstract: In this final installment of the paper we consider the case where the signals or the messages or both are continuously variable, in contrast with the discrete nature assumed until now. To a considerable extent the continuous case can be obtained through a limiting process from the discrete case by dividing the continuum of messages and signals into a large but finite number of small regions and calculating the various parameters involved on a discrete basis. As the size of the regions is decreased these parameters in general approach as limits the proper values for the continuous case. There are, however, a few new effects that appear and also a general change of emphasis in the direction of specialization of the general results to particular cases.

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TL;DR: The authors described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: representativeness, availability of instances or scenarios, and adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
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TL;DR: EELAB as mentioned in this paper is a toolbox and graphic user interface for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels, including EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and dipole model plotting, plus multi-trial ERP-image plots), preprocessing (including artifact rejection, filtering, epoch selection, and averaging), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and time/frequency decomposition including channel and component cross-coherence supported by bootstrap statistical methods based on data resampling.

17,362 citations


"Electrophysiological indices reflec..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...An independent components analysis (ICA) as implemented in the EEGLAB toolbox (Delorme & Makeig, 2004) was performed on the resulting dataset to identify and remove components related to eye movements and eye-blink artefacts....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A judgmental heuristic in which a person evaluates the frequency of classes or the probability of events by availability, i.e., by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind, is explored.

8,823 citations


"Electrophysiological indices reflec..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Cognitive resource constraints are thought to provide a principled explanation for the finding that in many tasks humans rely on simple heuristics rather than adopting superior but more computationally demanding task strategies (Goldstein & Gigerenzer, 2002; Tversky & Kahneman, 1973, 1974)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics.

6,283 citations


"Electrophysiological indices reflec..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...We assessed the effect of feedback condition and participant subgroup on the P3, FRN, and LPP: three ERP components associated with learning and processing of rewarding stimuli (Achtziger et al., 2015; Bennett et al., 2015; Frank et al., 2005; Yeung & Sanfey, 2004; Keil et al., 2002; Hajcak et al., 2009; Ito et al., 1998; Polich, 2007)....

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  • ...…and participant subgroup on the P3, FRN, and LPP: three ERP components associated with learning and processing of rewarding stimuli (Achtziger et al., 2015; Bennett et al., 2015; Frank et al., 2005; Yeung & Sanfey, 2004; Keil et al., 2002; Hajcak et al., 2009; Ito et al., 1998; Polich, 2007)....

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  • ...…the effect of feedback condition on three event-related potential (ERP) components associated with learning and/or reward processing: the P3 (Polich, 2007), the feedback-related negativity (FRN; Yeung & Sanfey, 2004), and the late positive potential (LPP; Ito, Larsen, Smith, & Cacioppo,…...

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  • ...In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying selection of Bayesian versus heuristic strategies, we investigated the effect of feedback condition on three event-related potential (ERP) components associated with learning and/or reward processing: the P3 (Polich, 2007), the feedbackrelated negativity (FRN; Yeung & Sanfey, 2004), and the late positive potential (LPP; Ito, Larsen, Smith, & Cacioppo, 1998)....

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