# Embedded image coding using zerotrees of wavelet coefficients

01 Dec 1993-IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (Springer, Boston, MA)-Vol. 41, Iss: 12, pp 3445-3462

TL;DR: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code.

Abstract: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code The embedded code represents a sequence of binary decisions that distinguish an image from the "null" image Using an embedded coding algorithm, an encoder can terminate the encoding at any point thereby allowing a target rate or target distortion metric to be met exactly Also, given a bit stream, the decoder can cease decoding at any point in the bit stream and still produce exactly the same image that would have been encoded at the bit rate corresponding to the truncated bit stream In addition to producing a fully embedded bit stream, the EZW consistently produces compression results that are competitive with virtually all known compression algorithms on standard test images Yet this performance is achieved with a technique that requires absolutely no training, no pre-stored tables or codebooks, and requires no prior knowledge of the image source The EZW algorithm is based on four key concepts: (1) a discrete wavelet transform or hierarchical subband decomposition, (2) prediction of the absence of significant information across scales by exploiting the self-similarity inherent in images, (3) entropy-coded successive-approximation quantization, and (4) universal lossless data compression which is achieved via adaptive arithmetic coding >

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TL;DR: In this article, a structural similarity index is proposed for image quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information, which can be applied to both subjective ratings and objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000.

Abstract: Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors (differences) between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapted for extracting structural information from a scene, we introduce an alternative complementary framework for quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a structural similarity index and demonstrate its promise through a set of intuitive examples, as well as comparison to both subjective ratings and state-of-the-art objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000. A MATLAB implementation of the proposed algorithm is available online at http://www.cns.nyu.edu//spl sim/lcv/ssim/.

40,609 citations

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TL;DR: It is possible to design n=O(Nlog(m)) nonadaptive measurements allowing reconstruction with accuracy comparable to that attainable with direct knowledge of the N most important coefficients, and a good approximation to those N important coefficients is extracted from the n measurements by solving a linear program-Basis Pursuit in signal processing.

Abstract: Suppose x is an unknown vector in Ropfm (a digital image or signal); we plan to measure n general linear functionals of x and then reconstruct. If x is known to be compressible by transform coding with a known transform, and we reconstruct via the nonlinear procedure defined here, the number of measurements n can be dramatically smaller than the size m. Thus, certain natural classes of images with m pixels need only n=O(m1/4log5/2(m)) nonadaptive nonpixel samples for faithful recovery, as opposed to the usual m pixel samples. More specifically, suppose x has a sparse representation in some orthonormal basis (e.g., wavelet, Fourier) or tight frame (e.g., curvelet, Gabor)-so the coefficients belong to an lscrp ball for 0

18,609 citations

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: An introduction to a Transient World and an Approximation Tour of Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases.

Abstract: Introduction to a Transient World. Fourier Kingdom. Discrete Revolution. Time Meets Frequency. Frames. Wavelet Zoom. Wavelet Bases. Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases. An Approximation Tour. Estimations are Approximations. Transform Coding. Appendix A: Mathematical Complements. Appendix B: Software Toolboxes.

17,693 citations

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TL;DR: The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods.

Abstract: Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding, introduced by Shapiro (see IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.41, no.12, p.3445, 1993), is a very effective and computationally simple technique for image compression. We offer an alternative explanation of the principles of its operation, so that the reasons for its excellent performance can be better understood. These principles are partial ordering by magnitude with a set partitioning sorting algorithm, ordered bit plane transmission, and exploitation of self-similarity across different scales of an image wavelet transform. Moreover, we present a new and different implementation based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT), which provides even better performance than our previously reported extension of EZW that surpassed the performance of the original EZW. The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods. In addition, the new coding and decoding procedures are extremely fast, and they can be made even faster, with only small loss in performance, by omitting entropy coding of the bit stream by the arithmetic code.

5,890 citations

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TL;DR: A "true" two-dimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information is pursued and it is shown that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves.

Abstract: The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of one-dimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a "true" two-dimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. Thus, unlike other approaches, such as curvelets, that first develop a transform in the continuous domain and then discretize for sampled data, our approach starts with a discrete-domain construction and then studies its convergence to an expansion in the continuous domain. Specifically, we construct a discrete-domain multiresolution and multidirection expansion using nonseparable filter banks, in much the same way that wavelets were derived from filter banks. This construction results in a flexible multiresolution, local, and directional image expansion using contour segments, and, thus, it is named the contourlet transform. The discrete contourlet transform has a fast iterated filter bank algorithm that requires an order N operations for N-pixel images. Furthermore, we establish a precise link between the developed filter bank and the associated continuous-domain contourlet expansion via a directional multiresolution analysis framework. We show that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves. Finally, we show some numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of contourlets in several image processing applications.

3,948 citations

### Cites methods from "Embedded image coding using zerotre..."

...Th us, using embedded tree structures for contourlet coefficients that are similar to the embedded zero-trees for wavelets [36], we can efficiently index the retained coefficients using 1 bit pe r coefficient....

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##### References

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TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that the difference of information between the approximation of a signal at the resolutions 2/sup j+1/ and 2 /sup j/ (where j is an integer) can be extracted by decomposing this signal on a wavelet orthonormal basis of L/sup 2/(R/sup n/), the vector space of measurable, square-integrable n-dimensional functions.

Abstract: Multiresolution representations are effective for analyzing the information content of images. The properties of the operator which approximates a signal at a given resolution were studied. It is shown that the difference of information between the approximation of a signal at the resolutions 2/sup j+1/ and 2/sup j/ (where j is an integer) can be extracted by decomposing this signal on a wavelet orthonormal basis of L/sup 2/(R/sup n/), the vector space of measurable, square-integrable n-dimensional functions. In L/sup 2/(R), a wavelet orthonormal basis is a family of functions which is built by dilating and translating a unique function psi (x). This decomposition defines an orthogonal multiresolution representation called a wavelet representation. It is computed with a pyramidal algorithm based on convolutions with quadrature mirror filters. Wavelet representation lies between the spatial and Fourier domains. For images, the wavelet representation differentiates several spatial orientations. The application of this representation to data compression in image coding, texture discrimination and fractal analysis is discussed. >

20,028 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: This work construct orthonormal bases of compactly supported wavelets, with arbitrarily high regularity, by reviewing the concept of multiresolution analysis as well as several algorithms in vision decomposition and reconstruction.

Abstract: We construct orthonormal bases of compactly supported wavelets, with arbitrarily high regularity. The order of regularity increases linearly with the support width. We start by reviewing the concept of multiresolution analysis as well as several algorithms in vision decomposition and reconstruction. The construction then follows from a synthesis of these different approaches.

8,588 citations

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TL;DR: A technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions, which tends to enhance salient image features and is well suited for many image analysis tasks as well as for image compression.

Abstract: We describe a technique for image encoding in which local operators of many scales but identical shape serve as the basis functions. The representation differs from established techniques in that the code elements are localized in spatial frequency as well as in space. Pixel-to-pixel correlations are first removed by subtracting a lowpass filtered copy of the image from the image itself. The result is a net data compression since the difference, or error, image has low variance and entropy, and the low-pass filtered image may represented at reduced sample density. Further data compression is achieved by quantizing the difference image. These steps are then repeated to compress the low-pass image. Iteration of the process at appropriately expanded scales generates a pyramid data structure. The encoding process is equivalent to sampling the image with Laplacian operators of many scales. Thus, the code tends to enhance salient image features. A further advantage of the present code is that it is well suited for many image analysis tasks as well as for image compression. Fast algorithms are described for coding and decoding.

6,975 citations

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TL;DR: Two different procedures for effecting a frequency analysis of a time-dependent signal locally in time are studied and the notion of time-frequency localization is made precise, within this framework, by two localization theorems.

Abstract: Two different procedures for effecting a frequency analysis of a time-dependent signal locally in time are studied. The first procedure is the short-time or windowed Fourier transform; the second is the wavelet transform, in which high-frequency components are studied with sharper time resolution than low-frequency components. The similarities and the differences between these two methods are discussed. For both schemes a detailed study is made of the reconstruction method and its stability as a function of the chosen time-frequency density. Finally, the notion of time-frequency localization is made precise, within this framework, by two localization theorems. >

6,180 citations

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TL;DR: The Baseline method has been by far the most widely implemented JPEG method to date, and is sufficient in its own right for a large number of applications.

Abstract: For the past few years, a joint ISO/CCITT committee known as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) has been working to establish the first international compression standard for continuous-tone still images, both grayscale and color. JPEG’s proposed standard aims to be generic, to support a wide variety of applications for continuous-tone images. To meet the differing needs of many applications, the JPEG standard includes two basic compression methods, each with various modes of operation. A DCT-based method is specified for “lossy’’ compression, and a predictive method for “lossless’’ compression. JPEG features a simple lossy technique known as the Baseline method, a subset of the other DCT-based modes of operation. The Baseline method has been by far the most widely implemented JPEG method to date, and is sufficient in its own right for a large number of applications. This article provides an overview of the JPEG standard, and focuses in detail on the Baseline method.

3,944 citations

### "Embedded image coding using zerotre..." refers background in this paper

...…(pos. or neg.) put its magnitude on the Subordinate List remove it from the Dominant List Subordinate Pass (Refinement Pass) • Provide one more bit on the magnitudes on the Subordinate List as follows − Halve the quantizer cells − If magnitude is in upper half of old cell, provide “1” − If…...

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