# Emergence of Gravity and RG Flow

01 Jan 2017-Vol. 187, pp 283-302

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a collection of notes based on lectures given at IIT Madras in September 2019 and at IFT Madrid in November 2019 on applied holography and especially the analytic and numerical techniques involved.

Abstract: This is a collection of notes based on lectures given at IIT Madras in September 2019 and at IFT Madrid in November 2019. It is supposed to be a concise (and therefore not comprehensive) and pragmatic course on applied holography and especially the (basic) analytic and numerical techniques involved. The lectures are not focused on the large theoretical and fundamental background which can be found already in several places in the literature, but rather on concrete applications of Bottom-Up AdS-CFT to Hydrodynamics, QCD and Condensed Matter. The idea is to accompany the reader step by step through the various benchmark examples with a classmate attitude, providing details of the computations and open-source numerical codes in Mathematica, and sharing simple tricks and warnings collected during my research experience. At the end of this path, the reader will be in possess of all the fundamental skills and tools to learn by himself/herself more advanced techniques and to produce independent and novel research on the topic.

51 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the large-N limits of certain conformal field theories in various dimensions include in their Hilbert space a sector describing supergravityon the product of anti-de Sitter spacetimes, spheres, and other compact manifolds.

Abstract: We show that the large-N limits of certainconformal field theories in various dimensions includein their Hilbert space a sector describing supergravityon the product of anti-de Sitter spacetimes, spheres, and other compact manifolds. This is shown bytaking some branes in the full M/string theory and thentaking a low-energy limit where the field theory on thebrane decouples from the bulk. We observe that, in this limit, we can still trust thenear-horizon geometry for large N. The enhancedsupersymmetries of the near-horizon geometry correspondto the extra supersymmetry generators present in thesuperconformal group (as opposed to just the super-Poincaregroup). The 't Hooft limit of 3 + 1 N = 4 super-Yang–Mills at the conformal pointis shown to contain strings: they are IIB strings. Weconjecture that compactifications of M/string theory on various anti-de Sitterspacetimes is dual to various conformal field theories.This leads to a new proposal for a definition ofM-theory which could be extended to include fivenoncompact dimensions.

14,530 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the Kaluza-Klein modes of Type IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\times {\bf S}^5$ match with the chiral operators of the super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.

Abstract: Recently, it has been proposed by Maldacena that large $N$ limits of certain conformal field theories in $d$ dimensions can be described in terms of supergravity (and string theory) on the product of $d+1$-dimensional $AdS$ space with a compact manifold. Here we elaborate on this idea and propose a precise correspondence between conformal field theory observables and those of supergravity: correlation functions in conformal field theory are given by the dependence of the supergravity action on the asymptotic behavior at infinity. In particular, dimensions of operators in conformal field theory are given by masses of particles in supergravity. As quantitative confirmation of this correspondence, we note that the Kaluza-Klein modes of Type IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\times {\bf S}^5$ match with the chiral operators of ${\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. With some further assumptions, one can deduce a Hamiltonian version of the correspondence and show that the ${\cal N}=4$ theory has a large $N$ phase transition related to the thermodynamics of $AdS$ black holes.

12,901 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a boundary of the anti-deSitter space analogous to a cut-off on the Liouville coordinate of the two-dimensional string theory is introduced to obtain certain Green's functions in 3+1-dimensional N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a large number of colors via non-critical string theory.

Abstract: We suggest a means of obtaining certain Green's functions in 3+1-dimensional N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a large number of colors via non-critical string theory The non-critical string theory is related to critical string theory in anti-deSitter background We introduce a boundary of the anti-deSitter space analogous to a cut-off on the Liouville coordinate of the two-dimensional string theory Correlation functions of operators in the gauge theory are related to the dependence of the supergravity action on the boundary conditions From the quadratic terms in supergravity we read off the anomalous dimensions For operators that couple to massless string states it has been established through absorption calculations that the anomalous dimensions vanish, and we rederive this result The operators that couple to massive string states at level n acquire anomalous dimensions that grow as 2 ng YM 2N 1/2 for large `t Hooft coupling This is a new prediction about the strong coupling behavior of large N SYM theory

11,418 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a correspondence between conformal field theory observables and those of supergravity was proposed, where correlation functions in conformal fields are given by the dependence of the supergravity action on the asymptotic behavior at infinity.

Abstract: Recently, it has been proposed by Maldacena that large $N$ limits of certain conformal field theories in $d$ dimensions can be described in terms of supergravity (and string theory) on the product of $d+1$-dimensional $AdS$ space with a compact manifold. Here we elaborate on this idea and propose a precise correspondence between conformal field theory observables and those of supergravity: correlation functions in conformal field theory are given by the dependence of the supergravity action on the asymptotic behavior at infinity. In particular, dimensions of operators in conformal field theory are given by masses of particles in supergravity. As quantitative confirmation of this correspondence, we note that the Kaluza-Klein modes of Type IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\times {\bf S}^5$ match with the chiral operators of $\N=4$ super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. With some further assumptions, one can deduce a Hamiltonian version of the correspondence and show that the $\N=4$ theory has a large $N$ phase transition related to the thermodynamics of $AdS$ black holes.

8,751 citations

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TL;DR: It is argued that the entanglement entropy in d + 1 dimensional conformal field theories can be obtained from the area of d dimensional minimal surfaces in AdS(d+2), analogous to the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy.

Abstract: A holographic derivation of the entanglement entropy in quantum (conformal) field theories is proposed from anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We argue that the entanglement entropy in d + 1 dimensional conformal field theories can be obtained from the area of d dimensional minimal surfaces in AdS(d+2), analogous to the Bekenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy. We show that our proposal agrees perfectly with the entanglement entropy in 2D CFT when applied to AdS(3). We also compare the entropy computed in AdS(5)XS(5) with that of the free N=4 super Yang-Mills theory.

3,889 citations