scispace - formally typeset

Proceedings ArticleDOI

Emergency Management using Social Networks

01 Oct 2019-pp 721-726

TL;DR: An end-to-end framework is proposed that takes public posts from social networking sites and converts it into a structured format that makes the information actionable and applies influence maximization techniques to increase the reach and to warrant better public participation in the crisis in a timely manner.

AbstractThe popularity of social networks make them most efficient to integrate into the Emergency Management process. Posts on social networking sites can help people by ensuring timely detection of an emergency. Often during the situations of a natural disaster, there is an information chasm created between the affected and the unaffected area that further compounds the confusion and chaos. In this paper, we examine the various challenges that exist while attempting to integrate social networks and Emergency Management and trace the state-of-art techniques that exist in various domains that come together for this Emergency Management system. We propose an end-to-end framework that takes public posts from social networking sites and converts it into a structured format that makes the information actionable. A summarization technique may be applied to the acquired information post mining of social media feed to convert everything into a text message that can be released into various social platforms. To increase the reach of this post and to warrant better public participation in the crisis in a timely manner, we apply influence maximization techniques and monitor the diffusion process of this generated post through a diffusion modelling technique that we propose. We conduct experiments to analyze the performance of this model and of the influence maximization process and conclude with an analysis of the experiments and the observed results and list out improvements that we intend to incorporate in future versions of this work.

...read more


Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Survey data collected from households in Jacksonville, Florida affected by 2016's Hurricane Matthew identifies perceived consistency of information as a key predictor of uncertainty regarding hurricane impact and evacuation logistics and provides practical implications regarding the need of information coordination for improved evacuation decision‐making.
Abstract: Understanding how information use contributes to uncertainties surrounding evacuation decisions is crucial during disasters. While literature increasingly establishes that people consult m...

1 citations


Cites background from "Emergency Management using Social N..."

  • ...…important to consider the impact of dynamic information environments such as augmented reality tools which assist with realistic visualization of spatial data and social networking sites which allows user-generated updates (Hiltz & Plotnick, 2013; Sharma & Kumar, 2019) on perceived uncertainties....

    [...]


References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The intuitive background for measures of structural centrality in social networks is reviewed and existing measures are evaluated in terms of their consistency with intuitions and their interpretability. Three distinct intuitive conceptions of centrality are uncovered and existing measures are refined to embody these conceptions. Three measures are developed for each concept, one absolute and one relative measure of the centrality of positions in a network, and one reflecting the degree of centralization of the entire network. The implications of these measures for the experimental study of small groups is examined.

13,104 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Aug 2003
TL;DR: An analysis framework based on submodular functions shows that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models, and suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.
Abstract: Models for the processes by which ideas and influence propagate through a social network have been studied in a number of domains, including the diffusion of medical and technological innovations, the sudden and widespread adoption of various strategies in game-theoretic settings, and the effects of "word of mouth" in the promotion of new products. Recently, motivated by the design of viral marketing strategies, Domingos and Richardson posed a fundamental algorithmic problem for such social network processes: if we can try to convince a subset of individuals to adopt a new product or innovation, and the goal is to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions, which set of individuals should we target?We consider this problem in several of the most widely studied models in social network analysis. The optimization problem of selecting the most influential nodes is NP-hard here, and we provide the first provable approximation guarantees for efficient algorithms. Using an analysis framework based on submodular functions, we show that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models; our framework suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.We also provide computational experiments on large collaboration networks, showing that in addition to their provable guarantees, our approximation algorithms significantly out-perform node-selection heuristics based on the well-studied notions of degree centrality and distance centrality from the field of social networks.

5,447 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Models of collective behavior are developed for situations where actors have two alternatives and the costs and/or benefits of each depend on how many other actors choose which alternative. The key...

4,736 citations


"Emergency Management using Social N..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Linear Threshold Model: Following various flavors of a similar concept [2][9], the Linear Threshold model [10] assigns a threshold value to each node, which is the total sum of the weights that have to be exerted on the node for it to become infected....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2010
TL;DR: This paper investigates the real-time interaction of events such as earthquakes in Twitter and proposes an algorithm to monitor tweets and to detect a target event and produces a probabilistic spatiotemporal model for the target event that can find the center and the trajectory of the event location.
Abstract: Twitter, a popular microblogging service, has received much attention recently. An important characteristic of Twitter is its real-time nature. For example, when an earthquake occurs, people make many Twitter posts (tweets) related to the earthquake, which enables detection of earthquake occurrence promptly, simply by observing the tweets. As described in this paper, we investigate the real-time interaction of events such as earthquakes in Twitter and propose an algorithm to monitor tweets and to detect a target event. To detect a target event, we devise a classifier of tweets based on features such as the keywords in a tweet, the number of words, and their context. Subsequently, we produce a probabilistic spatiotemporal model for the target event that can find the center and the trajectory of the event location. We consider each Twitter user as a sensor and apply Kalman filtering and particle filtering, which are widely used for location estimation in ubiquitous/pervasive computing. The particle filter works better than other comparable methods for estimating the centers of earthquakes and the trajectories of typhoons. As an application, we construct an earthquake reporting system in Japan. Because of the numerous earthquakes and the large number of Twitter users throughout the country, we can detect an earthquake with high probability (96% of earthquakes of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) seismic intensity scale 3 or more are detected) merely by monitoring tweets. Our system detects earthquakes promptly and sends e-mails to registered users. Notification is delivered much faster than the announcements that are broadcast by the JMA.

3,811 citations


"Emergency Management using Social N..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Much work has been done towards using social media data to identify posts about a crisis or disaster and formalizing them into a structure to help the authorities or layman [13][28][22][11]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Models for the processes by which ideas and influence propagate through a social network have been studied in a number of domains, including the diffusion of medical and technological innovations, the sudden and widespread adoption of various strategies in game-theoretic settings, and the effects of "word of mouth" in the promotion of new products. Recently, motivated by the design of viral marketing strategies, Domingos and Richardson posed a fundamental algorithmic problem for such social network processes: if we can try to convince a subset of individuals to adopt a new product or innovation, and the goal is to trigger a large cascade of further adoptions, which set of individuals should we target?We consider this problem in several of the most widely studied models in social network analysis. The optimization problem of selecting the most influential nodes is NP-hard here, and we provide the first provable approximation guarantees for efficient algorithms. Using an analysis framework based on submodular functions, we show that a natural greedy strategy obtains a solution that is provably within 63% of optimal for several classes of models; our framework suggests a general approach for reasoning about the performance guarantees of algorithms for these types of influence problems in social networks.We also provide computational experiments on large collaboration networks, showing that in addition to their provable guarantees, our approximation algorithms significantly out-perform node-selection heuristics based on the well-studied notions of degree centrality and distance centrality from the field of social networks.

3,729 citations