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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21759-3

Emerging dominance of summer rainfall driving High Arctic terrestrial-aquatic connectivity

04 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1448-1448
Abstract: Hydrological transformations induced by climate warming are causing Arctic annual fluvial energy to shift from skewed (snowmelt-dominated) to multimodal (snowmelt- and rainfall-dominated) distributions. We integrated decade-long hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from the High Arctic to show that shifts in the timing and magnitude of annual discharge patterns and stream power budgets are causing Arctic material transfer regimes to undergo fundamental changes. Increased late summer rainfall enhanced terrestrial-aquatic connectivity for dissolved and particulate material fluxes. Permafrost disturbances (<3% of the watersheds’ areal extent) reduced watershed-scale dissolved organic carbon export, offsetting concurrent increased export in undisturbed watersheds. To overcome the watersheds’ buffering capacity for transferring particulate material (30 ± 9 Watt), rainfall events had to increase by an order of magnitude, indicating the landscape is primed for accelerated geomorphological change when future rainfall magnitudes and consequent pluvial responses exceed the current buffering capacity of the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Climate warming is causing annual Arctic fluvial energy budgets to shift seasonality from snowmelt-dominated to snowmelt- and rainfall-dominated hydrological regimes, enhancing late summer and fall terrestrial-aquatic connectivity and higher material fluxes.

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Topics: Arctic (59%), Snowmelt (55%), Global warming (54%) ... show more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/2021JG006275
Audrey Thellman1, Kathi Jo Jankowski2, Brian Hayden3, Xiao Yang4  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
Topics: Ecology (disciplines) (67%), Climate change (55%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.GEODERMA.2021.115302
01 Nov 2021-Geoderma
Abstract: Over the last decades, Arctic landscapes have experienced intense warming leading to permafrost degradation and rapid ecosystem changes. Active layer thickening, widespread melting of ground ice and thermo-erosion have affected the mobilization of organic and mineral elements. While the carbon and nitrogen cycles are intensively studied, the soil weathering has been less documented. In the present study, we monitored the chemistry of soil capillary and gravitational pore waters, rainfall and stream waters daily during the growing season in two experimental sites under tussock tundra vegetation in the low-Arctic region, in Salluit (Nunavik, Canada). We aimed to investigate the seasonal thaw controls on the evolution of concentrations of major organic and inorganic elements in the active layer (i.e., seasonally thawed surface layers) of two permafrost soils (Cryosols) differing in parental materials: an ombrotrophic bog (i.e., Histic Cryosol) and post-glacial marine sediments continuously waterlogged (i.e., Turbic Cryosol). In the Histic Cryosol, the electrical conductivity was

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Topics: Permafrost (57%), Tundra (53%), Ombrotrophic (52%)

2 Citations





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59 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10021-006-9013-8
13 Feb 2007-Ecosystems
Abstract: Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y−1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y−1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described.

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Topics: Freshwater ecosystem (60%), Carbon cycle (57%), Aquatic ecosystem (56%) ... show more

2,751 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4319/LO.2008.53.3.0955
Abstract: A new approach for parameterizing dissolved organic matter (DOM) ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra is presented. Two distinct spectral slope regions (275–295 nm and 350–400 nm) within log-transformed absorption spectra were used to compare DOM from contrasting water types, ranging from wetlands (Great Dismal Swamp and Suwannee River) to photobleached oceanic water (Atlantic Ocean). On the basis of DOM size-fractionation studies (ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography), the slope of the 275–295-nm region and the ratio of these slopes (SR; 275–295-nm slope : 350–400-nm slope) were related to DOM molecular weight (MW) and to photochemically induced shifts in MW. Dark aerobic microbial alteration of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) resulted in spectral slope changes opposite of those caused by photochemistry. Along an axial transect in the Delaware Estuary, large variations in SR were measured, probably due to mixing, photodegradation, and microbial alteration of CDOM as terrestrially derived DOM transited through the estuary. Further, SR varied by over a factor of 13 between DOM-rich wetland waters and Sargasso Sea surface waters. Currently, there is no consensus on a wavelength range for log-transformed absorption spectra. We propose that the 275–295-nm slope be routinely reported in future DOM studies, as it can be measured with high precision, it facilitates comparison among dissimilar water types including CDOM-rich wetland and CDOM-poor marine waters, and it appears to be a good proxy for DOM MW.

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Topics: Colored dissolved organic matter (59%), Spectral slope (57%), Dissolved organic carbon (51%) ... show more

1,701 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14338
09 Apr 2015-Nature
Abstract: Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.

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Topics: Permafrost carbon cycle (73%), Greenhouse gas (65%), Permafrost (60%) ... show more

1,657 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ORGGEOCHEM.2009.03.002
Abstract: The isolation, characterization and study of the properties of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) still represent a challenge because of the heterogeneity, complexity and low concentration of organic material in natural waters. Based on its ability to interact with contaminants and thus to modify their transport and bioavailability, DOM is of interest for environmental purposes. The objective of this work was to better characterize DOM in the Gironde Estuary (southwestern France). The estuary represents an exchange zone between the continent and the Atlantic Ocean and conditions the transfer of organic and inorganic substances from the continental to the oceanic environment. Several samples were collected along the estuary during three cruises in 2002 and 2006. They were analysed using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, a sensitive technique that allows direct analysis of water samples. Fluorescent DOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not behave conservatively in this estuarine system, i.e. the organic material did not undergo simple dilution from the upstream to the downstream part of the estuary. A seasonal variability in DOC content was pointed out, whereas few seasonal variations in DOM fluorescence were observed. DOM sources and processing in the estuary were further evaluated by determining two fluorescence indices - the humification index (HIX) and the index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX). By applying these indices, the relative degree of humification (HIX) and autotrophic productivity (BIX) could be assessed. Based on the fluorescence and DOC results, the estuary was divided into three zones depending on salinity (S) and characterized by specific DOM: (i) A turbid zone of low salinity (S 25) characterized by increased autotrophic productivity and a marked marine influence, and associated with high and low values of BIX and HIX, respectively. The HIX and BIX indices were shown as useful tools for readily defining and classifying DOM characteristics in estuarine waters.

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Topics: Dissolved organic carbon (54%), Estuary (51%)

799 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1465
Abstract: Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome(1). Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity ov ...

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Topics: Tundra (65%), Global warming (57%), Biome (53%)

656 Citations